Conservation Genetics

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 1063–1071 | Cite as

Genetic introgression of cultured rainbow trout in the Mexican native trout complex

  • Marco A. Escalante
  • Francisco J. García-De-León
  • Casey B. Dillman
  • Anabelia de los Santos Camarillo
  • Anna George
  • Irene de los A. Barriga-Sosa
  • Arturo Ruiz-Luna
  • Richard L. Mayden
  • Stéphanie Manel
Research Article


The Mexican native trout complex is the group of salmonids that naturally has the southernmost distribution in the world. Despite its unique status and evidence of more than 13 distinct lineages, there are only two described species (Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni and O. chrysogaster). These fishes are threatened by environmental and anthropogenic factors, most notably the introduction of the exotic species O. mykiss (rainbow trout) for aquaculture. Here we applied population genetics analysis in 1,017 wild and cultured trout to understand the extent of genetic introgression of rainbow trout in Mexican native trout. Present results indicate a high degree of introgression and genetic admixture among introduced rainbow trout and some populations of Mexican native trout, exposing them to loss of genetic diversity. Thus, introduction of exotic trout for aquaculture purposes must be strictly regulated or avoided and we advise the use of native trout for aquaculture.


Genetic introgression Genetic hybridization Mexican trout Rainbow trout Northwestern Mexico Sierra Madre Occidental 



This research was supported by SAGARPA-CONACYT (Ref. 12147) and PDCBS (Ref. 14707.03), the U.S. National Science Foundation (Ref. DEB-0240184, DEB-0817027) and SAGARPA-FIRCO 2012 (Ref. RGA-BCS-12-000003). Special thanks to the binational group Truchas Mexicanas, especially Joseph R. Tomelleri, Bernard R. Kuhajda, Hector Espinosa, David A. Neely, James E. Brooks, David L. Propst, Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos, Dean Hendrickson and Lloyd Findley, for their extensive assistance in collecting and their collaborative efforts. Marco A. Escalante was the recipient of CONACYT fellowships to obtain his MsC degree in the CIAD Postgraduate Program and now during his PhD studies in AMAP Lab, under a project funded by CONACYT (Ref. CB-2010-01-152893). Collection permits were issued by DGVS/SEMARNAT (FAUT 0117, issued to H. Espinosa Pérez) and Fishing promotion licenses by SAGARPA (DGOPA 21205/0765; 250406/1606; 030506/1677; 240800 213-03/2366; 300801-613-03/1607).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco A. Escalante
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francisco J. García-De-León
    • 3
  • Casey B. Dillman
    • 4
  • Anabelia de los Santos Camarillo
    • 3
  • Anna George
    • 5
  • Irene de los A. Barriga-Sosa
    • 6
  • Arturo Ruiz-Luna
    • 2
  • Richard L. Mayden
    • 7
  • Stéphanie Manel
    • 1
    • 8
  1. 1.UMR Botanique et BioinforMatique de l’Architecture des PlantesBd de la Lironde TA A51/PS2Montpellier Cedex 5France
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Manejo AmbientalCentro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo ACMazatlánMexico
  3. 3.Laboratorio de Genética para la Conservación, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del NoroesteInstituto Politécnico NacionalLa PazMexico
  4. 4.Virginia Institute of Marine ScienceGloucester PointUSA
  5. 5.Tennessee Aquarium Conservation InstituteChattanoogaUSA
  6. 6.Laboratorio de Genética y Biología Molecular-PExPA, Departamento de HidrobiologíaUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana IztapalapaIztapalapaMexico
  7. 7.Department of BiologySaint Louis UniversitySt. LouisUSA
  8. 8.Laboratoire Population Environnement DéveloppementUniversité Aix-MarseilleMarseilleFrance

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