Conservation Genetics

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 1515–1522 | Cite as

Population genetics of the threatened tree daisy Olearia gardneri (Asteraceae), conservation of a critically endangered species

Research Article

Abstract

All known populations of the nationally critical tree daisy, Olearia gardneri, were studied using AFLP markers. With fewer than 160 individual plants, Olearia gardneri is the third-rarest tree in New Zealand and a good model with which to study evolutionary process in fragmented endangered plants. Genetic variation was at similar levels to other long-lived tree species in New Zealand and also as in other studies to date had poor correspondence between genetic and geographic distance. Genetic factors such as inbreeding depression and the loss of genetic diversity might lower fitness and have substantial consequences for evolution and survival of rare threatened plants. Due to the decline of this species in recent times it is imperative that conservation measures are undertaken, including revegetation. Despite considerable emphasis on “eco-sourcing” in plant recovery programmes there is strong evidence that this may not be the best strategy for O. gardneri due to breeding system and population size considerations.

Keywords

Olearia sp. AFLP Reintroduction Parentage analysis Genetic structure 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study is part of a larger project on conservation genetics of threatened plants in New Zealand funded by the FRST—Outcome-Based Investment: Sustaining and Restoring Biodiversity. Adeline Barnaud was funded through a Walter-Zellidja fellowship of the Académie Française. We are especially grateful to Duckchul Park for help in genetic analyses. Vivienne McGlynn and Graeme La Cock (DoC Palmerston North and Wanganui, respectively) and Tony Silbery (DoC Wellington Region) are acknowledged for their participation in the sampling collection.

References

  1. Bonin A, Ehrich D, Manel S (2004) Statistical analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism data: a toolbox for molecular ecologists and evolutionists. Mol Ecol 16:3737–3758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Broadhurst LM, Young AG, Murry BG (2008) AFLPs reveal an absence of geographical genetic structure among remnant populations of pohutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa, Myrtaceae). N Z J Bot 46:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. de Lange PJ, Norton DA, Courtney SP et al (2009) New Zealand extinct, threatened and at risk vascular plant list. N Z J Bot 47:61–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Nettancourt D (1977) Incompatibility in angiosperms. Sex Plant Reprod 10:185–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. DeSalle R (2005) Genetics at the brink of extinction. Heredity 94:386–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ellstrand NC, Elam DR (1993) Population genetic consequences of small population size: implications for plant conservation. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 24:217–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation Study. Mol Ecol 14:2611–2620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Forest F, Grenyer R, Rouget M et al (2007) Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots. Nature 445:757–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Frankham R (2003) Genetics and conservation biology. C R Biol 326(1):S22–S29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Frankham R (2005) Genetics and extinction. Biol Cons 126:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frankham R, Lees K, Montgomery ME et al (1999) Do population size bottlenecks reduce evolutionary potential? Anim Conserv 2:255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frankham R, Ballou JD, Briscoe DA (2002) Introduction to conservation genetics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Gerber S, Mariette S, Streiff R et al (2000) Comparison of microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers for parentage analysis. Mol Ecol 9:1037–1048CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gerber S, Chabrier P, Kremer A (2003) FAMOZ: a software for parentage analysis using dominant, codominant and uniparentally inherited markers. Mol Ecol Notes 3:479–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haase P (1992a) Isozyme variation and genetic relationships in Phyllocladus trichomanoides and P. alpinus (Podocarpaceae). N Z J Bot 30:359–363Google Scholar
  16. Haase P (1992b) Isozyme variability and biogeography of Nothofagus truncata (Fagaceae). N Z J Bot 30:315–328Google Scholar
  17. Hamrick JL, Godt MJW (1995) Conservation genetics of endemic species. In: Avise JC, Hamrick JL (eds) Conservation genetics. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 281–304Google Scholar
  18. Hawkins BJ, Sweet GB (1989) Genetic variation in rimu–an investigation using isozyme analysis. N Z J Bot 27:83–90Google Scholar
  19. Heenan PB, Smissen RD, Dawson MI (2005) Self-incompatibility in the threatened shrub Olearia adenocarpa (Asteraceae). N Z J Bot 43:831–841Google Scholar
  20. Marshall TC, Slate J, Kruuk LEB et al (2008) Statistical confidence for likelihood-based paternity inference in natural populations. Mol Ecol 7:639–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mba C, Tohme J (2005) Use of AFLP markers in surveys of plant diversity. Methods Enzymol 395:177–201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Meudt HM, Clarke AC (2007) Almost forgotten or latest practice? AFLP applications, analyses and advances. Trends Plant Sci 12:106–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Moritz C (2002) Strategies to protect biological diversity and evolutionary processes that sustain IT. Syst Biol 51:238–252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Nei M (1973) Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci 70:3321–3323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Nei M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygoisty and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89:583–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ogle CC (2003) Conservation of Olearia gardneri. Report for the small leaved daisy recovery group. DOC Science Internal Series 156Google Scholar
  27. Peakall R, Smouse PE (2006) Genales 6: genetic analysis in excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 6:288–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Rogers GM (1996) Aspects of the ecology and conservation of the threatened tree daisy Olearia hectorii in New Zealand. NZ J Bot 34:227–240Google Scholar
  30. Smouse PE, Long JC (1992) Matrix correlation analysis in anthropology and genetics. Yearb Phys Anthropol 35:187–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smouse PE, Long JC, Sokal RR (1986) Multiple regression and correlation extensions of the Mantel test of matrix correspondence. Syst Zool 35:627–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sokal RR, Michener CD (1958) A statistical method for evaluating systematic relationships. Univ Kansas Sci Bull 38:1409–1438Google Scholar
  33. Spielman D, Brook BW, Frankham R (2004) Most species are not driven to extinction before genetic factors impact them. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101:15261–15264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Vekemans XT, Beauwens M, Lemaire I et al (2002) Data from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers show indication of size homoplasy and of a relationship between degree of homoplasy and fragment size. Mol Ecol 11:139–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Whittaker RJ (1998) Scale, succession and complexity in island biogeography: are we asking the right questions? Glob Ecol Biogeogr 9:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Young AG, Schmidt-Adam G, Muarry BG (2001) Genetic variation and structure of remnants stands of pohutukawa (Metrosiderous excelsa, Myrtaceae). N Z J Bot 39:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecological Genetics GroupLandcare ResearchLincolnNew Zealand
  2. 2.Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and ZoologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations