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Conservation Genetics

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 311–318 | Cite as

Genetic diversity and relationships among Pistacia species and cultivars

  • Leila Pazouki
  • Mohsen MardiEmail author
  • Parvin Salehi Shanjani
  • Marianna Hagidimitriou
  • Seyed M. Pirseyedi
  • Mohammad R. Naghavi
  • Damiano Avanzato
  • Elisa Vendramin
  • Salih Kafkas
  • Behzad Ghareyazie
  • M. R. Ghaffari
  • S. M. Khayam Nekoui
Research Article

Abstract

Iran is one of the two major centres of Pistacia diversity and the main producer of pistachios in the world. About 282 Iranian pistachio genotypes (Pistacia spp.), together with 22 foreign cultivars (P. vera), were genotyped using 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the genetic diversity and relationships among Pistacia species and cultivars. The results revealed that the genetic diversity within P. atlantica subsp. kurdica was considerably lower than in P. vera or P. khinjuk. Principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear separation between the different Pistacia spices, as well as between the Iranian and foreign cultivars. AMOVA analysis showed that the variation between the species, between different populations, and within populations accounted for 41, 9, and 50% of the total variation, respectively. The results demonstrated that the study of genetic diversity and relationships among Pistacia species and cultivars using SSR markers provides important information for the collection and conservation of pistachio germplasm. In addition, the Iranian cultivars had a broader genetic background than that of the foreign cultivars. Thus, they are very important for genetic conservation and the planning of future breeding programmes. We also determined the different levels of genetic diversity that exist between and within the species and populations and showed that gene flow occurs between the Iranian cultivars and wild-type P. vera populations. The study provides practical information that policy-makers and scientists can apply to the conservation and sustainable use of all the species studied.

Keywords

Pistachio Microsatellite Phylogenetics Pistacia Population genetics SSR Genetic diversity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran supported this study. The authors would like to thank Dr. A. A. Javanshah (Director General of the Iranian Pistachio Research Institute), in particular, for his contribution to the collection of plant materials.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leila Pazouki
    • 1
  • Mohsen Mardi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Parvin Salehi Shanjani
    • 2
  • Marianna Hagidimitriou
    • 3
  • Seyed M. Pirseyedi
    • 1
  • Mohammad R. Naghavi
    • 4
  • Damiano Avanzato
    • 5
  • Elisa Vendramin
    • 5
  • Salih Kafkas
    • 6
  • Behzad Ghareyazie
    • 1
  • M. R. Ghaffari
    • 1
  • S. M. Khayam Nekoui
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GenomicsAgricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of IranKarajIran
  2. 2.Natural Resources Gene BankResearch Institute of Forests and RangelandsTehranIran
  3. 3.Pomology Laboratory, Department of Crop ScienceAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece
  4. 4.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of TehranKarajIran
  5. 5.CRA Centro di Ricerca per la FrutticolturaRomeItaly
  6. 6.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of CukurovaAdanaTurkey

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