Conservation Genetics

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 639–641 | Cite as

Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the ant-garden ant, Crematogaster levior (Forel)

  • Warren BoothEmail author
  • Elsa Youngsteadt
  • Coby Schal
  • Edward L. Vargo
Technical Note


Throughout Amazonia, the ant Crematogaster levior is known for its participation in a complex ant-garden mutualism with the ant Camponotus femoratus and several species of epiphytic plants for which it plays an important role in seed viability. We isolated nine polymorphic microsatellite loci for C. levior from a genomic library enriched for di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide repeats. Two to 14 alleles were detected per locus, with levels of observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.103 to 0.785.


Crematogaster Formicidae Di-nucleotide microsatellite Tri-nucleotide microsatellite Tetra-nucleotide microsatellite 



We thank John Longino for ant identification and Jeniffer Katherine Alvarez Baca for field assistance. We also acknowledge Steve Bogdanowicz and Travis Glenn for their invaluable technical advice. This study was partially supported by a National Science Foundation predoctoral fellowship (EY), a U.S. Department of Education GAANN fellowship (EY), an Amazon Conservation Association graduate research grant (EY), a Sigma Xi Grant in Aid of Research (EY), a North Carolina Entomological Society travel grant (EY), the North Carolina State University Office of International Affairs (CS), grant number 2004-35302-14880 from the National Research Initiative of the USDA Cooperative State Research, and the Blanton J. Whitmire endowment at North Carolina State University. Permission to work and collect in the Los Amigos conservation concession was granted by the Intstituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) of Perú.


  1. Booth W, Lewis VR, Taylor RL et al (2008) Identification and characterization of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the western dry wood termite, Incisitermes minor. Mol Ecol Res (in press)Google Scholar
  2. Davidson DW (1988) Ecological studies of neotropical ant gardens. Ecology 69:1138–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dopman EB, Bogdanowicz SM, Harrison RG (2004) Genetic mapping of sexual isolation between E and Z pheromone strains of the European corn borer (Ostinia nubilalis). Genetics 167:301–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Giegerich R, Meyer F, Schleiermacher C (1996) ISMB-96, GeneFisher–software support for the detection of postulated genes. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on intelligent systems for molecular biology, AAAI Press (ISSN 57735-002-2)Google Scholar
  5. Hölldobler B, Wilson EO (1990) The ants. Belknap Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  6. Longino J (2003) The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica. Zootaxa 151:1–150Google Scholar
  7. Orivel J, Errard C, Dejean A (1997) Ant gardens: interspecific recognition in parabiotic ant species. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 40:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Perera OP, Snodgrass GL, Scheffler BE et al (2007) Characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois). Mol Ecol Notes 7:987–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) GENEPOP (version 1.2): Population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Hered 86:248–249Google Scholar
  10. Vantaux A, Dejean A, Dor A et al (2006) Parasitism versus mutualism in the ant-garden parabiosis between Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior. Insect Soc 54:95–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Wilson EO (1987) The arboreal ant fauna of Peruvian Amazon forests: a first assessment. Biotropica 19:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Warren Booth
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elsa Youngsteadt
    • 1
  • Coby Schal
    • 1
  • Edward L. Vargo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Entomology and W. M. Keck Center for Behavioral BiologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations