Conservation Genetics

, 8:1247 | Cite as

Genetic evidence of Ranavirus in toe clips: an alternative to lethal sampling methods

Technical Note


Amphibian populations have been undergoing declines on a global scale. Among the many threats to these populations are emergent infectious diseases (EIDs). The Ranavirus in particular has been found within many declining amphibian populations. Although non-lethal sampling methods exist for some amphibian groups, such as salamanders, the anurans are traditionally tested using a lethal method. By comparing traditional liver samples and a new non-lethal method of toe clipping we prove that the Ranavirus can also be determined in frogs using a non-lethal method, a much needed tool in threatened populations. This method will allow for ranaviral detection without further impacting declining populations, and can further be used for other research questions.


Ranavirus Non-invasive method Amphibian declines Rana clamitans 



This work was funded by Laurentian University Research Fund. We would like to thank M. Berrill for helpful comments on the manuscript as well as A. Schulte-Hostedde for the use of his molecular equipment.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biology DepartmentLaurentian UniversitySudburyCanada

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