The effects of gene flow and population isolation on the genetic structure of␣reintroduced wild turkey populations: Are genetic signatures of source populations retained?
- 311 Downloads
To counter losses of genetic diversity in reintroduced populations, species sometimes are reintroduced into networks of populations with the potential to exchange individuals. In reintroduced populations connected by gene flow, patterns of genetic structure initiated by the founding event may become obscured, and populations may eventually follow an isolation-by-distance model of genetic differentiation. Taking advantage of well-documented reintroduction histories of wild turkey populations in Indiana, we assessed the degree to which gene flow among reintroduced populations has obscured genetic signatures left by the founding events. Using a suite of nuclear microsatellite loci and sequence data from the mitochondrial control region, we characterized the level of genetic diversity and degree of genetic structure within and among: (1) reintroduced populations in isolated northern Indiana Fish and Wildlife Areas, (2) reintroduced populations in southern Indiana Fish and Wildlife Areas, where the distribution of populations is more continuous, and (3) source populations used for these reintroductions. We also utilized individual-based assignment tests to determine the relative contribution of source populations to the current distribution of alleles in reintroduced populations. Our results indicate that wild turkey reintroductions in Indiana have left distinct genetic signatures on populations that are detectable even after several decades. Although we found some case-specific evidence for gene flow, particularly in regions where populations are in close proximity, our data indicate on overall paucity of gene flow at a regional scale. Such post-reintroduction genetic monitoring has immediate implications for the design of optimal strategies to reintroduce wildlife for conservation and management.
Keywordswild turkey translocation gene flow assignment microsatellite
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The authors are grateful for the technical assistance provided by Courtney Shattuck and Rochelle Jacques. We are indebted to Steve Backs from the Indiana Department of Natural Resources for his expertise in turkey biology and the management history of turkeys in Indiana, and to the numerous check station operators and wildlife biologists throughout our sampling area who helped us collect samples. We also would like to thank Jeff Glaubitz, Paul Leberg, Andrew DeWoody, and George Parker for helpful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. We appreciate funding provided by Purdue University, the National Wild Turkey Federation, and the John S. Wright Endowment to the Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University.
- Allendorf FW (1983) Isolation, gene flow, and genetic differentiation among populations. In: Schonewald-Cox CM, Chambers SM, MacBryde B, Thomas L (eds), Genetics and conservation: a reference for managing wild animal and plant populations. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, pp. 51–65Google Scholar
- Backs SE, Eisfelder CH (1990) Criteria and guidelines for wild turkey release priorities in Indiana. Proceedings of the National Wild Turkey Symposium 6:134–143Google Scholar
- Goudet J (2001) FSTAT, a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices (version 2.9.3). Available from http://www.unil.ch/izea/softwares/fstat.html.
- Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand. J. Statist., 6, 65–70.Google Scholar
- Latch EK (2004) Population genetics of reintroduced wild turkeys: insights into hybridization, gene flow, and social structure. Dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, INGoogle Scholar
- Latch EK, King JS, Harveson LA, Hobson MD, Rhodes OE (2005) Assessing hybridization in wildlife populations using molecular markers: A case study in wild turkeys. J. Wildlife Manag., in press.Google Scholar
- Lewis PO, Zaykin D (1999) Genetic data analysis: a computer program for the analysis of allelic data, version 1.1. Available at http://lewis.eeb.uconn.edu/lewishome/software.html.
- Merila J, Bjorklund M, Baker A (1996) The successful founder: genetics of introduced Caruelis chloris (greenfinch) populations in New Zealand. Heredity 77:410–422Google Scholar
- Nei M (1987) Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Pearce J, Fields RL, Scribner KT (1997) Nest materials as a source of genetic data for avian behavioral studies. J. Field Ornithol., 68, 471–481Google Scholar
- Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) GENEPOP (version 1.2): Population-genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J. Hered. 86:248–249Google Scholar
- Rhodes OE, Reat EP, Heffelfinger JR, DeVos JC (2001) Analysis of reintroduced pronghorn populations in Arizona using mitochondrial DNA markers. Proceedings of the Biennial Pronghorn Antelope Workshop 19:45–54Google Scholar
- Wright S (1978) Evolution and the genetics of populations, Vol. 4: variability within and among natural populations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar