Advertisement

Conservation Genetics

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 905–916 | Cite as

Effects of a recent founding event and intrinsic population dynamics on genetic diversity in an ungulate population

  • Gregory A. Wilson
  • John S. Nishi
  • Brett T. Elkin
  • Curtis Strobeck
Article

Abstract

Maintenance of genetic diversity has recently become a management goal for a number of species, due to its importance for present and future population viability. Genetic drift, primarily through differential reproductive success and inbreeding, can accelerate the loss of genetic diversity in recently recovered populations. We attempt to quantify the consequences of these factors on the genetic diversity contained in a small, recently founded wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) population by examining the genetic variation in this conservation herd, the calves born therein, and its large source population. The Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project was initiated to found a disease-free herd of wood bison containing a representative amount of the genetic diversity present in the Wood Buffalo National Park metapopulation. Levels of diversity in the Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project founders are higher than in previous salvage attempts. To examine the effects of differential reproductive success on this population, we monitored parentage of the calves born in the Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project for 3 years since the founders reached sexual maturity. Two of the male founders sired over 90% of the offspring born in this population, which has led to a reduction in diversity in their calves. Monitoring of reproductive success, and incorporation of selective breeding strategies will be required to reduce the rate at which genetic diversity is lost from this small, isolated population. These steps should occur in other recovery projects, particularly when a small number of individuals are capable of dominating reproduction.

Key words:

bottleneck diversity founding event genetic drift reproductive success 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Government of the Northwest Territories provided operational costs for the HLWBRP. The project was co-managed with the Deninu Kue First Nation and the Aboriginal Wildlife Harvesters Committee, Fort Resolution, NT. G.W.’s postgraduate scholarship and postdoctoral fellowship were provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Funding was provided by NSERC and Parks Canada grants to C.S. Part of this research was supported by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health grant HG01988 to Bruce Rannala, and National Institutes of Health grant R01-GM40282 to Montgomery Slatkin. Special thanks to T.R. Ellsworth, S. Cuthbert, S. Beck, K. Delorme, R.␣Sayine Jr., L. Jones, and B. Bailey for contributions to field operations and/or program administration. D. Beaulieu, D. Balsillie, R. Boucher, C.C. Gates, and T. Unka were instrumental in initial project development, consultation, and implementation. We especially thank the National Wood Bison Recovery Team and countless volunteers for their support and field assistance. We thank all reviewers for their helpful comments.

References

  1. Animal, Plant and Food Risk Analysis Network (2003) Risk Assessment on Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Wood Bison of the Hook Lake Recovery Project. Canadian Food Inspection Agency Unpublished Report I28, 19 February 2003, Ottawa, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  2. Barendse W, Armitage SM, Ryan AM, Moore SS, Clayton D, Georges M, Womack JE, Hetzel DJS (1993) A genetic map of DNA loci on bovine chromosome 1. Genomics 18:602–608CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barendse W, Armitage SM, Kossarek LM, Shalom A, Kirkpatrick BW, Ryan AM, Clayton D, Li L, Neibergs HL, Zhang N, Grosse WM, Weiss J, Creighton P, McCarthy F, Ron M, Teale AJ, Fries R, McGraw RA, Moore SS, Georges M, Soller M, Womack JE, Hetzel DJS (1994) A genetic linkage map of the bovine genome. Nat. Genet. 6:227–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bishop MD, Kappes SM, Keele JW, Stone RT, Sunden SLF, Hawkins GA, Toldo SS, Fries R, Grosz MD, Yoo J, Beattie CW (1994) A genetic linkage map for cattle. Genetics 136:619–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Broders HG, Mahoney SP, Montevecchi WA, Davidson WS (1999) Population genetic structure and the effect of founder events on the genetic variability of moose, Alces alces, in Canada. Mol. Ecol. 8:1309–1315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brownstein MJ, Carpten JD, Smith JR (1996) Modulation of non-templated nucleotide addition by tag DNA polymerase: Primer modifications that facilitate genotyping. BioTechniques 20:1004–1010Google Scholar
  7. Carbyn LN, Oosenbrug SM, Anions DW (1993) Wolves, Bison and the Dynamics Related to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in Canada’s Wood Buffalo National Park. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, Edmonton AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  8. Charlesworth D, Charlesworth B (1987) Inbreeding depression and its evolutionary consequences. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 18:237–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Connelly RW, Fuller W, Wobeser G, Mercredi R, Hubert B (1990) Northern Diseased Bison Report of the Environmental Assessment Panel. Environmental Assessment Review Office, Report 35, Hull, QuebecGoogle Scholar
  10. COSEWIC (1998) Canadian Species at Risk. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  11. Crow JF, Kimura M (1970) An Introduction to Population Genetics Theory. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. DeYoung RW, Demarais S, Honeycutt RL, Rooney AP, Gonzales RA, Gee KL (2003) Genetic consequences of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) restoration in Missippi. Mol. Ecol. 12:3237–3252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Eldridge MDB, King JM, Loupis AK, Spencer PBS, Taylor AC, Pope LC, Hall GP (1999) Unprecedented low levels of genetic variation and inbreeding depression in an island population of the black-footed rock-wallaby. Conserv. Biol. 13:531–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foote RH (1989) Value of testicular and sperm profiles in optimizing reproductive success: Lessons learned from selective breeding programs of domestic and laboratory animals. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 302:107–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Frankel OH, Soulé ME (1981) Conservation and Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  16. Fuller WA (1960) Behavior and social organization of the wild bison of Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada. Arctic 13:3–19Google Scholar
  17. Fuller WA (1961) The ecology and management of the American bison. Terre Vie 108:286–304Google Scholar
  18. Gates CC (1993) Biopolitics and pathobiology: diseased bison in northern Canada. In: Walker RE (eds), Proceedings of the Northern Public Bison Herds Symposium, Lacrosse, WI, 27–29 July 1993. Custer State Park, Custer, SD, pp. 271–288Google Scholar
  19. Gates CC, Elkin BT, Carbyn LN, (1997) The diseased bison issue in northern Canada. In: Thorne ET, Boyce MS, Nicoletti P, Kreeger T (eds), Brucellosis, Bison, Elk, and Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area: Defining the Problem, Exploring Solutions. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY, pp. 120–132Google Scholar
  20. Gates CC, Elkin BT, Beaulieu DC (1998) Initial results of an attempt to eradicate bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis from a wood bison herd in Northern Canada. In: Irby L, Knight J (eds), International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, pp. 221–228Google Scholar
  21. Gates CC, Mitchell J, Wierzchowski J, Giles L (2001b) A Landscape Evaluation of Bison Movements and Distribution in Northern Canada. Axys Environmental Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  22. Gates CC, Stephenson RO, Reynolds HW, van Zyll de Jong CG, Schwantje H, Hoefs M, Nishi J, Cool N, Chisholm J, James A, Koonz B (2001a) National Recovery Plan for the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae). Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife (RENEW), Ottawa, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  23. Goodnight KF, Queller DC (2000) RELATEDNESS 5.0.6. http://gsoft.smu.edu/Gsoft.html.
  24. Haugen AO (1974) Reproduction in the plains bison. Iowa State J. Res. 49:1–8Google Scholar
  25. James JW (1971) The founder effect and response to artificial selection. Genet. Res. 12:249–266Google Scholar
  26. Joly DO (2001) Brucellosis and Tuberculosis as Factors Limiting Population Growth of Northern Bison. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. Saskatchewan, PhD ThesisGoogle Scholar
  27. Joly DO, Messier F (2004a) Factors affecting apparent prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in wood bison. J. Anim. Ecol. 73:623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Joly DO, Messier F (2004b) Testing hypotheses of bison population decline (1970–1999) in Wood Buffalo National Park: synergism between exotic disease and predation. Can. J. Zool. 82:1165–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Joly DO, Messier F (2005) The effect of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis on reproduction and survival of wood bison in Wood Buffalo National Park. J. Anim. Ecol. 74:543–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Komers PE, Messier F, Flood PF, Gates CC (1994) Reproductive behavior of male wood bison in relation to progesterone level in females. J. Mammal. 75:757–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lacy RC (1987) Loss of genetic diversity from managed populations: interacting effects of drift, mutation, immigration, selection, and population subdivision. Conserv. Biol. 1:143–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lott DF (1979) Dominance relations and breeding rate in mature male American bison. Z. Tierpsychol. 49:418–432Google Scholar
  33. Lott DF (1981) Sexual behavior and intersexual strategies in American bison. Z. Tierpsychol. 56:97–114Google Scholar
  34. Lott DF, Minta SC (1983) Random individual association and social group instability in American bison (Bison bison). Z. Tierpsychol. 61:153–172Google Scholar
  35. Marshall TC, Slate J, Kruuk LEB, Pemberton JM (1998) Statistical confidence for likelihood based paternity inference in natural populations. Mol. Ecol. 7:639–655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. McCormack PA (1992) The political economy of bison management in Wood Buffalo National Park. Arctic 45:367–380Google Scholar
  37. McHugh T (1958) Social behavior of the American buffalo (Bison bison bison). Zoologica 43:1–40Google Scholar
  38. Moore SS, Barendse W, Berger KT, Armitage SM, Hetzel DJS (1992) Bovine and ovine DNA microsatellites from the EMBL and Genbank databases. Anim. Genet. 23:463–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nei M (1973) The theory and estimation of genetic distance. In: Morton NE (eds) Genetic Structure of Populations. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, pp. 45–54Google Scholar
  40. Nei M, Roychoudry AK (1974). Sampling variances of heterozygosity and genetic distance. Genetics 76:379–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Nishi JS, Elkin BT, Ellsworth TR, Wilson GA, Balsillie DW, van Kessel J (2001) An overview of the Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project: where have we come from, where are we now, and where we would like to go?. In: Rutley BD (eds) Bison are Back - 2000. Proceedings of the Second International Bison Conference. Bison Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta, pp. 215–233Google Scholar
  42. Nishi JS, Elkin BT, Ellsworth TR (2002a) The Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project: Can a disease-free captive wood bison herd be recovered from a wild population infected with bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis? Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 969:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nishi JS, Stephen C, Elkin BT (2002b) Implication of agricultural and wildlife policy on management and eradication of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis in free-ranging wood bison of northern Canada. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 969:236–244Google Scholar
  44. Ogilvie SC (1979) The Park Buffalo. National and Provincial Parks Association of Canada, Calgary-Banff Chapter, Reid, Crowther and Partners, Calgary, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  45. Paetkau D, Calvert W, Stirling I, Strobeck C (1995) Microsatellite analysis of population structure in Canadian polar bears. Mol. Ecol. 4:347–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Paetkau D, Waits LP, Clarkson PL, Craighead L, Strobeck C (1997) An empirical evaluation of genetic distance statistics using microsatellite data from bear (Ursidae) populations. Genetics 147:1943–1957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Paetkau D, Waits LP, Clarkson PL, Craighead L, Vyse E, Ward ER, Strobeck C (1998) Variation in genetic diversity across the range of North American brown bears. Conserv. Biol. 12:418–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Peterson, MJ (1991) Wildlife parasitism, science, and management policy. J. Wildl. Manage. 55:782–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Polziehn RO, Beech R, Sheraton J, Strobeck C (1996) Genetic relationships among North American bison populations. Can. J. Zool. 74:738–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Polziehn RO, Hamr J, Mallory FF, Strobeck C (2000) Microsatellite analysis of North American wapiti (Cervus elaphus) populations. Mol. Ecol. 9:1561–1576CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Raymond M, Rouset F (1995) GENEPOP (Version 3.1d): population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenism. J. Hered. 86:248–249Google Scholar
  52. Reynolds HW, Hawley AWL (1987) Bison Ecology in Relation to Agricultural Development in the Slave River Lowlands, NWT. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper 63, Ottawa, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  53. Saccheri I, Kuussaari M, Kankare M, Vikman P, Fortelius W, Hanski I (1998) Inbreeding and extinction in a butterfly metapopulation. Nature 392:491–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schnabel RD, Ward TJ, Derr JN (2000) Validation of 15 microsatellites for parentage testing in North American bison, Bison bison and domestic cattle. Anim. Genet. 31:360–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Shaffer ML (1981) Minimum population sizes for species conservation. BioScience 31:131–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry, 3rd edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  57. Soper JD (1941) History, range and home life of the northern bison. Ecol. Monogr. 11:347–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Steffen P, Eggen A, Dietz AB, Womack JE, Stranzinger G, Fries R (1993) Isolation and mapping of polymorphic microsatellites in cattle. Anim. Genet. 24:121–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stephenson RO, Gerlach SC, Guthrie RD, Harington CR, Mills RO, Hare G (2001). Wood bison in late Holocene Alaska and adjacent Canada: paleontological, archeological and historical records. In: Gerlach SC, Murray MS (eds). People and Wildlife in Northern North America: Essays in Honor of R. Dale Guthrie. International Series University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, pp. 125–159, British Archeological ReportsGoogle Scholar
  60. Stockwell CA, Mulvey M, Vinyard GL (1996) Translocations and the preservation of allelic diversity. Conserv. Biol. 10:1133–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Takezaki N, Nei M (1996) Genetic distances and reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from microsatellite DNA. Genetics 144:389–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Titterington DM, Murray GD, Murray LS, Spiegelhalter DJ, Skene AM, Habbema JDF, Gelpke GJ (1981) Comparison of discrimination techniques applied to a complex data set of head injured patients. J. R. Statist. Soc. A. 144:145–175Google Scholar
  63. Van Vuren D (1983) Group dynamics and summer home range of bison in southern Utah. J. Mammal. 64:329–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. van Zyll de Jong CG (1986) A Systematic Study of Recent Bison, With Particular Consideration of the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascaeRhoads 1898). National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  65. Williams LW, Serfass TL, Cogan R, Rhodes OE Jr. (2002) Microsatellite variation in the reintroduced Pennsylvania elk herd. Mol. Ecol. 11:1299–1310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Wilson GA, Strobeck C (1999a) Genetic variation within and relatedness among wood and plains bison populations. Genome 42:483–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wilson GA, Strobeck C (1999b) The isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in bison, and their usefulness in other artiodactyls. Anim. Genet. 30:226–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wilson GA, Strobeck C, Wu L, Coffin JW (1997) Characterization of microsatellite loci in caribou Rangifer tarandus, and their use in other artiodactyls. Mol. Ecol. 6:697–699CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wilson GA, Olson W, Strobeck C (2002) Reproductive success in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), established using molecular techniques. Can. J. Zool. 80:1537–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wisely SM, McDonald DB, Buskirk SW (2003) Evaluation of the genetic management of the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Zool. Biol. 22:287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wright S (1931) Evolution in Mendelian populations. Genetics 16:97–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Wright S (1977) Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. III. Experimental Results and Evolutionary Deductions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ILGoogle Scholar
  73. Zittlau K, Coffin J, Farnell R, Kuzyk G, Strobeck C (2000) Genetic relationships of three Yukon caribou herds determined by DNA typing. Rangifer, Special Issue 12, 59–62Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory A. Wilson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • John S. Nishi
    • 4
  • Brett T. Elkin
    • 5
  • Curtis Strobeck
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Integrative BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medical GeneticsUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Environment and Natural ResourcesGovernment of the Northwest TerritoriesFort SmithCanada
  5. 5.Department of Environment and Natural ResourcesGovernment of the Northwest TerritoriesYellowknifeCanada
  6. 6.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations