Simulations of clonal species genotypic diversity – trembling aspen (Populus tremuloïdes) as a case study
- 79 Downloads
We built two models to follow clonal species genotypic diversity (G/N) over long periods of time at the stand and landscape levels. The models were then validated with empirical data from trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) populations in Quebec’s boreal forest. Data was collected using a chronosequence approach in seven sites that burned in 1717, 1760, 1797, 1823, 1847, 1944, and 1916. Genetic identification was done by using four microsatellite loci. At the stand scale, simulations were repeated for a genet size of 5, 25, 50 and 100 ramets each. At the landscape level, we simulated the cumulative genet survival rate under different fire cycles (5–500 years) for 500 years after fire. Stand simulations indicated that ramet mortality within genets rather than genet mortality accounts for the increase in G/N with time since fire. Both the initial genet size and the recurrent suckering of some genets (or ramet recruitment) play an important role in maintaining high G/N levels for long periods of time. In general, the larger the number of ramets per genet, the longer the genet survives under a gap disturbance regime and a minimum of 100 ramets per genet is required to maintain aspen genet survival for 500 years. At the landscape level, genet loss increases as the fire cycle gets longer. In Quebec’s boreal forest, short rotation even-aged management practices seem to maintain a genet survival rate similar to that produced by the natural succession regime.
Key wordsaspen clonal diversity even-aged management fire cycle time since fire
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
We thank G. Souzede for his help in the fieldwork, D. Charron for dendrochronological work, K.␣Naydenov and J.F. Bouffard for their help in DNA analysis. This study was funded by a doctoral scholarship to M.C.N. (On-the-Job Research Scholarships) provided by the Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies and Nexfor-Norbord Industries Inc. Other financial support was provided by the NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Chair in sustainable forest management and by a NSERC grant to F.T.
- Belkhir K, Borsa P, Chikhi L, Raufaste N, Bonhomme F (2004). genetix v4.05, logiciel sous Windows TM pour la génétique des populations. Laboratoire Génome, Populations, Interactions CNRS UMR 5000, Université de Montpellier II, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
- Bergeron Y (2000) Species and stand dynamics in the mixed woods of Quebec’s southern boreal forest. Ecology 81: 1500–1516Google Scholar
- Bergeron Y, Dubuc M (1989) Succession in the southern part of the Canadian boreal forest. Vegetatio 79: 51–39Google Scholar
- Bergeron Y, Richard PJH, Carcaillet C, Gauthier S, Flannigan M, Prairie YT (1998) Variability in fire frequency and forest composition in Canada’s southeastern boreal forest: a challenge for sustainable forest management. Cons. Ecol. [online] 2(2): Available from the Internet. URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol2/iss2/art6/
- Bergeron Y, Harvey B, Leduc A, Gauthier S (1999) Forest management guidelines based on natural disturbance dynamics: Stand- and forest-level considerations. For. Chron. 75: 49- 54Google Scholar
- Cheliak WM, Dancik BP (1982) Genic diversity of natural populations of a clone forming tree Populus tremuloïdes. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 24: 611–616Google Scholar
- Donough T (1997) Changes to Ontario’s Forest Tree Seedling Production: 1992 to 1997. In: 1997 National Proceedings, Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations (tech. cords. Landis TD, Thompson JR), pp. 8–11. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-419, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OregonGoogle Scholar
- FAO, 2002. Status and Trends in Indicators of Forest Genetic Diversity. In: Forest Genetic Resources Working Papers, Working Paper FGR/38E. Forest Resources Development Service, Forest Resources Division, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Glaubitz J, Moran JF (2003) Developments of indicators of genetic diversity in managed forests. Project no PN99.809, Forest and wood Products Research and Development Corporation, Victoria, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- Kneeshaw D, Bergeron Y (1998) Canopy gap characteristics and tree replacement in the southeastern boreal forest Ecology 79: 783–794Google Scholar
- MIG (1998) A framework of regional (sub-national) criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management in Australia. MIG Secretariat, Forests Division, Department of primary Industry and Energy, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H (1974) Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Perala DA (1990) Populus tremuloïdes Michx. In: Hardwoods (eds) Silvics of North America. USDA Forest Service, USA, pp. 555–569Google Scholar
- Pielou EC (1969) An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Rogers DL (2002) In situ genetic conservation of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don): Information and recommendations. Report No. 26. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Genetic Resources Conservation Program, Davis, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
- Shepperd WD (1993) The effect of harvesting activities on soil compaction, root damage, and suckering in Colorado aspen. West. J. Appl. For. 8: 62–66Google Scholar
- Van Wagner CE (1972) A table of diurnal variation in the Fine Fuel Moisture Code. Information Report PS-X-38, Canadian Forest Service, Petawawa Forest Experiment Station, Chalk River, OntarioGoogle Scholar
- Young A, Boyle T (2003) Forest conservation Genetics. Principles and Practice. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, AustraliaGoogle Scholar