Advertisement

Conservation Genetics

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 431–443 | Cite as

Population structure of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation among South American Burmeister’s porpoises (Phocoena spinipinnis)

  • Sabrina Rosa
  • Michel C. MilinkovitchEmail author
  • Koen Van  Waerebeek
  • Jehanne Berck
  • Jorge Oporto
  • Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto
  • Marie-Françoise Van  Bressem
  • Natalie Goodall
  • Insa Cassens
Article

Abstract

Little is known about the biology of Burmeister’s porpoises (Phocoena spinipinnis), a small cetacean species endemic to South American waters. Information on stock structure, however, is urgently needed, as the species suffers from considerable mortality due to local fishery activities throughout its distribution range. Using mitochondrial control region sequences and 11 species-specific microsatellite loci, we assessed the genetic differentiation among 118 stranded, incidentally or directly-caught Burmeister’s porpoises from different localities in Peruvian, Chilean, and Argentine waters. F-statistics and Bayesian clustering analyses indicate a major population differentiation along the South American Pacific coast, separating Peruvian from both Chilean and Argentine individuals. Interestingly, this population boundary is consistent with the population structure found in another sympatrically-occurring cetacean species: the dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus). Given that vulnerability to local depletion for South American coastal porpoises and dolphins is probably highest in the Peruvian population (due to high exploitation levels and recurrent El Niño events), the genetic data reported here considerably strengthen the need for conservation efforts focused on regulation of catches in local waters. Moreover, we discuss possible genetic differentiation among Burmeister’s porpoises (i) from the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean and (ii) from different Peruvian harbors. Finally, cross-species amplifications suggest that our newly-developed microsatellite markers will be useful in population genetic studies in the five other extant porpoise species.

Keywords

cetacean mtDNA microsatellites population structure management 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baker, CS, Medrano-Gonzalez, L, Calambokidis, J,  et al. 1998Population structure of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation among humpback whales in the North PacificMol. Ecol.7695707Google Scholar
  2. Bandelt, HJ, Forster, P, Röhl, A 1999Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogeniesMol. Biol. Evol.163748Google Scholar
  3. Berta, A, Sumich, JL 1999Marine Mammals Evolutionary BiologyAcademic PressSan Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  4. Brownell, RL, Praderi, R 1982Status of Burmeister’s porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis, in southern South American watersFAO Fisheries Series (5) [Mammals in the Sea]49196Google Scholar
  5. Brownell, RL, Praderi, R 1984Phocoena spinipinnisMammalian Species21714Google Scholar
  6. Brownstein, MJ, Carpten, D, Smith, JR 1996Modulation of non-templated nucleotide addition by Taq DNA polymerase: primer modifications that facilitate genotypingBioTechniques2010041010Google Scholar
  7. Cassens, I, Van Waerebeek, K, Best, PB,  et al. 2003The phylogeography of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus): A critical examination of network methods and rooting proceduresMol. Ecol.1217811792Google Scholar
  8. Cassens, I, Van Waerebeek, K, Best, PB,  et al. 2005Evidence for male dispersal along the coasts but no migration in pelagic waters in dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus)Mol. Ecol.14107121Google Scholar
  9. Corcuera, JF, Monzon, F, Aguilar, A, Borrell, A, Raga, JA 1995Life history data, organochlorine pollutants and parasites from eight Burmeister’s porpoises, Phocoena spinipinnis, caught in northern Argentine watersRep. Int. Whaling Comm. (Special Issue)16365372Google Scholar
  10. Cornuet, J-M, Luikart, G 1996Description and power analysis of two tests for detecting recent population bottlenecks from allele frequency dataGenetics14420012014Google Scholar
  11. Crespo, EA, Corcuera, JF, Lopez Cazorla, A 1994Interactions between marine mammals and fisheries in some coastal fishing areas of ArgentinaRep. Int. Whaling Comm. (Special Issue)15269281Google Scholar
  12. Dawson, S, Pichler, FB, Slooten, E, Baker, CS 2001The North Island Hector’s dolphin is vulnerable to extinctionMarine Mammal Sci.17366371Google Scholar
  13. Di Rienzo, A, Peterson, AC, Garza, JC,  et al. 1994Mutational processes of simple-sequence repeat loci in human populationsProc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA9131663170Google Scholar
  14. El Mousadik, A, Petit, RJ 1996High level of genetic differentiation for allelic richness among populations of the argan tree [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels] endemic to MoroccoTheoret. Appl. Genet.92832839Google Scholar
  15. Escorza-Trevino, S, Dizon, AE 2000Phylogeography, intraspecific structure and sex-biased dispersal of Dall’s porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, revealed by mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA analysesMol. Ecol.910491060Google Scholar
  16. Goodall, RNP 1978Report on the small cetaceans stranded on the coasts of Tierra del FuegoSci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst., Tokyo30197230Google Scholar
  17. Goodall, RNP, Norris, KS, Harris, G, Oporto, JA, Castello, HP 1995aNotes on the biology of the Burmeister’s porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis, off southern South AmericaRep. Int. Whaling Comm. (Special Issue)16317347Google Scholar
  18. Goodall, RNP, Würsig, B, Würsig, M, Harris, G, Norris, KS 1995bSightings of Burmeister’s porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis, off southern South AmericaRep. Int. Whaling Comm. (Special Issue)16297316Google Scholar
  19. Goudet, J 1995FSTAT (Version 1.2): a computer program to calculate F-statisticsJ. Heredity86485486Google Scholar
  20. Goudet J (2001) FSTAT, a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices (version 2.9.3.). Available from http://www.unil.ch/izea/softwares/fstat.html
  21. Guo, SW, Thompson, EA 1992Permorming the exact test for Hardy–Weinberg proportions for multiple allelesBiometrics48361372Google Scholar
  22. Hardy, O, Charbonnel, N, Fréville, H, Heuertz, M 2003Microsatellite allele sizes: A simple test to assess their significance on genetic differentiationGenetics16314671482Google Scholar
  23. Hardy, O, Vekemans, X 2002SPAGeDi: a versatile computer program to analyse spatial genetic structure at the individual or population levelsMol. Ecol. Notes2618620Google Scholar
  24. Hillis, DM, Moritz, C, Mable, BK 1996Molecular SystematicsSinauer Associates, Inc.Sunderland, MA, 655Google Scholar
  25. Hoelzel, AR, Hancock, JM, Dover, GA 1991Evolution of the cetacean mitochondrial D-loop regionMol. Biol. Evol.8475493Google Scholar
  26. Luikart, G, Allendorf, FW, Sherwin, B, Cornuet, J-M 1998Distortion of allele frequency distributions provides a test for recent population bottlenecksJ. Heredity12238247Google Scholar
  27. Lyrholm, T, Leimar, O, Johanneson, B, Gyllensten, U 1999Sex-biased dispersal in sperm whales: Contrasting mitochondrial and nuclear genetic structure of global populationsProc. Roy. Soc., London266347354Google Scholar
  28. Michalakis, Y, Excoffier, L 1996A generic estimation of population subdivision using distances between alleles with special reference to microsatellite lociGenetics14210611064Google Scholar
  29. Nei, M 1987Molecular Evolutionary GeneticsColumbia University PressNew York, USAGoogle Scholar
  30. Nielsen, R 1997A likelihood approach to populations samples of microsatellite allelesGenetics146711716Google Scholar
  31. Petit, RJ, El Mousadik, A, Pons, O 1998Identifying populations for conservation on the basis of genetic markersConserv. Biol.12844855Google Scholar
  32. Pichler, FB, Baker, CS 2000Loss of genetic diversity in the endemic Hector’s dolphin due to fisheries-related mortalityProc. Roy. Soc., London B26797102Google Scholar
  33. Pichler, FB, Dawson, SM, Slooten, E, Baker, CS 1998Geographic isolation of Hector’s dolphin populations described by mitochondrial DNA sequencesConserv. Biol.12676682Google Scholar
  34. Piry, S, Luikart, G, Cornuet, J-M 1999BOTTLENECK: A computer program for detecting recent reductions in the effective population size using allele frequency dataJ. Heredity90502503Google Scholar
  35. Pritchard, JK, Stephens, M, Donnelly, P 2000Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype dataGenetics155945959Google Scholar
  36. Read, AJ, Waerebeek, K, Reyes, JC, McKinnon, JS, Lehman, LC 1988The exploitation of small cetaceans in coastal PeruBiol. Conserv.465370Google Scholar
  37. Reyes J, Van Waerebeek K (1995) Aspects of the biology of Burmeister’s porpoise from Peru. Rep. Int. Whaling Comm. (Special Issue)Google Scholar
  38. Rice, DW 1998Marine Mammals of the World Systematics and DistributionAllen Press, Inc.Lawrence, KSGoogle Scholar
  39. Rice, WR 1989Analyzing tables of statistical tests.Evolution43223225Google Scholar
  40. Rosel, PE, France, SC, Wang, JY, Kocher, TD 1999aGenetic structure of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena populations in the northwest Atlantic based on mitochondrial and nuclear markersMol. Ecol.84154Google Scholar
  41. Rosel, PE, France, SC, Wangs, JY, Kocher, TD 1999bGenetic structure of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena populations in the northwest Atlantic based on mitochondrial and nuclear markersMol. Ecol.8S41S54Google Scholar
  42. Rosel, PE, Haygood, MG, Perrin, WF 1995Phylogenetic relationships among true porpoisesMol. Phylogenet. Evol.4463474Google Scholar
  43. Schneider, S, Roessli, D, Excoffier, L 2000Arlequin ver. 2.000: a software for population genetics data analysisGenetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of GenevaGeneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  44. Slooten, E, Fletcher, D, Taylor, BL 2000Accounting for uncertainty in risk assessment: Case study of Hector’s dolphin mortality due to gillnet entanglementConserv. Biol.1412641270Google Scholar
  45. Storz, JF, Ramakrishnan, U, Alberts, SC 2002Genetic effective size of a wild primate population: Influence of current and historical demographyEvolution56817829Google Scholar
  46. Thompson, JD, Gibson, TJ, Plewniak, F, Jeanmougin, F, Higgins, DG 1997The Clustal X windows interface: Flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis toolsNucl. Acids Res.2448764882Google Scholar
  47. Van Waerebeek, K, Alfaro-Shigueto, J, Montes, D,  et al. 2002aFisheries related Mortality of Small cetaceans in neritic Waters of Peru in 1999–2001Scientific Committee, IWCShimonoseki, Japan10Google Scholar
  48. Van Waerebeek, K, Reyes, JC 1990aCatch of Small Cetaceans at Pucusana Port, Central Peru, during 1987Biol. Conserv.511522Google Scholar
  49. Van Waerebeek K, Reyes JC (1990b) Incidental catch and sightings of Burmeister’s porpoise in Peru, 1988–1989. IWC Scientific Committee, 13 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Van Waerebeek, K, Reyes, JC 1994aInteractions between small cetaceans and Peruvian fisheries in 1988–1989 and analysis of trendsRep. Int. Whaling Comm. (Special Issue)15495502Google Scholar
  51. Van Waerebeek, K, Reyes, JC 1994bPost-ban small cetacean takes off Peru: a reviewRep. Int. Whaling Comm. (Special Issue)15503520Google Scholar
  52. Van Waerebeek, K, Santillan, L, Reyes, JC 2002bAn unusually large aggregation of Burmeister’s porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis off Peru, with a review of sightings from the eastern South PacificNoticiario Mensual3501217Google Scholar
  53. Van Waerebeek K, Van Bressem M-F, Alfaro-Shigueto J, et al. (1999) A preliminary analysis of recent captures of small cetaceans in Peru and Chile. Paper presented to the 51st Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, 9 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Van Waerebeek, K, Bressem, M-F, Felix, F,  et al. 1997Mortality of dolphins and porpoises in coastal fisheries off Peru and southern Ecuador in 1994Biol. Conserv.814349Google Scholar
  55. Walton, MJ 1997Population structure of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in the seas around the UK and adjacent watersProc. Roy. Soc., London2648994Google Scholar
  56. Weir, BS, Cockerham, CC 1984Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structureEvolution3813581370Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabrina Rosa
    • 1
  • Michel C. Milinkovitch
    • 1
    Email author
  • Koen Van  Waerebeek
    • 2
  • Jehanne Berck
    • 1
  • Jorge Oporto
    • 3
  • Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto
    • 4
  • Marie-Françoise Van  Bressem
    • 2
  • Natalie Goodall
    • 5
  • Insa Cassens
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Evolutionary Genetics, Institute of Molecular Biology and MedicineFree University of BrusselsGosseliesBelgium
  2. 2.Peruvian Centre for Cetacean Research (CEPEC)Museo de DelfinesLimaPeru
  3. 3.Corporacion Terra AustralisValdiviaChile
  4. 4.Asociacion Pro DelphinusLimaPeru
  5. 5.Centro Austral de Investigaciones Cientificas (CADIC)UshuaiaArgentina

Personalised recommendations