Conservation Genetics

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 15–24 | Cite as

Molecular genetic variation across the southern and eastern geographic ranges of the African lion, Panthera leo

  • Jean Dubach
  • B. D. Patterson
  • M. B. Briggs
  • K. Venzke
  • J. Flamand
  • P. Stander
  • L. Scheepers
  • R. W. Kays
Article

Abstract

We examined sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes (2,360 bp total) for 26 lions from eleven locations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Six distinct haplotypes were observed in the combined sequences, forming two clades: the eastern and the western savannas. The Uganda-Western Kenya haplotype grouped at a basal position with the eastern clade of lions from Tsavo south to the Transvaal and Natal regions. The phylogenetic position of the haplotype from Sabi Sands in the southern part of Kruger National Park remained poorly resolved. The haplotypes found in Namibia and Botswana formed the western clade. The modest genetic variation documented here argues against taxonomic distinctions among living African lions.

Keywords

African lion cytochrome b mitochondrial variation NADH dehydrogenase Panthera leo phylogeography 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, GM 1939A checklist of African mammalsBull. Mus. Compar. Zool.831763Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, KA, Kat, PW, Munson, LA, Kalake, A, Appel, JJ 1996Canine distemper-related mortality among wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Chobe National Park, BotswanaJ. Zoo. Wildlife Med.27426427Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, JL 1980The re-establishment and management of a lion Panthera leo population in Zululand, South AfricaBiol. Conserv.19107117Google Scholar
  4. Arctander, P, Johansen, C, Coutellec-Vreto, M 1999Phylogeography of three closely related African bovids (Tribe Alcelaphini)Mol. Biol. Evol.1617241739Google Scholar
  5. Arnason, R, Bodin, K, Gullberg, A, Ledje, C, Mouchaty, S 1995A molecular view of pinniped relationships with particular emphasis on the true sealsJ. Mol. Evol407885Google Scholar
  6. Bininda-Emonds, ORP, Vazquez, DP, Manne, LL 2000The calculus of biodiversity: integrating phylogeny and conservationTrend Ecol. Evol.159294Google Scholar
  7. Blood, DC, Henderson, JA, Radostits, OM 1979Veterinary Medicine5Lea and FebigerPhiladelphia327Google Scholar
  8. Brown, SM, Houlden, BA 2000Conservation genetics of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)Conserv. Genet.1365370Google Scholar
  9. Coheleach, G 1982The Big Cats: The Paintings of Guy CoheleachHarry N. Abrams Inc.New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Cracraft, J, Feinstein, J, Vaughn, J, Helm-Bychowski, K 1998Sorting out tigers (Panthera tigris): Mitochondrial sequences, nuclear inserts, systematics, and conservation geneticsAnimal Conserv.1139150Google Scholar
  11. Crandall, KA, Bininda-Emonds, ORP, Mace, GM, Wayne, RK 2000Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biologyTrends Ecol. Evol.15290295Google Scholar
  12. Ellerman, JR, Morrison-Scott, TCS, Hayman, RW 1953Southern African Mammals 1758–1951: a ReclassificationBritish Museum (Natural History)LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Elliot, DG 1897Lists of mammals from Somali-land obtained by the museum’s East African expeditionField Columbian Museum19109155Google Scholar
  14. Excoffier, L, Smouse, PE, Quattro, JM 1992Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction dataGenetics131479491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Felsenstein, J 1988Phylogenies from molecular sequences: Inference and reliabilityAnn. Rev. Genet.22521565Google Scholar
  16. Freeman, A, Machugh, D, Mckeown, S, Walzer, C, Mcconnell, D, Bradley, D 2001Sequence variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region of wild African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)Heredity86355362Google Scholar
  17. Georgiadis, N, Bischof, L, Templeton, A, Patton, J, Karesh, W, Western, D 1994Structure and history of African elephant populations: I. Eastern and southern AfricaJ. Hered.85100104Google Scholar
  18. Gilbert , DA, Packer, C, Pusey, AE, Stephens, JC, O’Brien, SJ 1991Analytical DNA fingerprinting in lions: Parentage, genetic diversity, and kinshipJ. Hered.82378386Google Scholar
  19. Girman, D, Vila, C, Geffen, E, Creel, S, Mills, M, McNutt, J, Ginsberg, J, Kat, P, Mamiya, K, Wayne, R 2001Patterns of population subdivision, gene flow and genetic variability in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus)Mol. Ecol.1017031723Google Scholar
  20. Guggisberg, CAW 1961Simba, the Life of the LionHoward TimminsCapetown, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  21. Guthrie, RD 1990Frozen Fauna of the Mammoth Steppe: The Story of Blue BabeUniversity of Chicago PressChicagoGoogle Scholar
  22. Hallgrimsson, B, Maiorana, V 2000Variability and size in mammals and birdsBiological J. Linn Soci.70571595Google Scholar
  23. Hanby, JP, Bygott, JD 1979

    Population Changes in Lions and Other Predators

    Sinclair, ARENorton-Griffiths, M eds. Serengeti: Dynamics of an EcosystemUniversity of Chicago PressChicago249262
    Google Scholar
  24. Hemmer, H 1974Zur Artgeschichte des Lowen Panthera (Panthera) leo (Linnaeus, 1758)Veroff. Zool. Staatssamml. Munchen17167280Google Scholar
  25. Hoelzel , AR, Lopez, JV, Dover, GA, O’Brien, SJ 1994Rapid evolution of a heteroplasmic repetitive sequence in the mitochondrial DNA control region of carnivoresJ. Mol. Evol.39191199Google Scholar
  26. Hollister, N 1917Some effects of environment and habit on captive lionsProc. U. S. Natl. Mus.53177193Google Scholar
  27. Irwin, DM, Kocher, TD, Wilson, AC 1991Evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammalsJ. Mol. Evol.32128144Google Scholar
  28. Janczewski, DN, Modi, WS, Stephens, JC, O’Brien, SJ 1995Molecular evolution of 12S RNA and cytochrome b sequences in the pantherine lineage of FelidaeMol. Biol. Evol.12690707Google Scholar
  29. Kat, PW, Alexander, KA, Smith, JS, Munson, L 1995Rabies and African wild dogs in KenyaProc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser B262229233Google Scholar
  30. Kingdon, J 1997The Kingdon Field Guide to African MammalsAcademic PressSan Diego, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  31. Kumar, S, Tamura, K, Nei, N. 1993MEGA: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis. Vs. 1.02Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity Park, PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
  32. Lieberman, BS, Vrba, ES 1995Hierarchy theory, selection, and sortingBioScience45394399Google Scholar
  33. Lopez, JV, Yuhki, N, Masuda, R, Modi, WS, O’Brien, SJ 1994Numt, a recent transfer and tandem amplification of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome of the domestic catJ. Mol. Evol.39174190Google Scholar
  34. Lopez, JV, Cevario, S, O’Brien, SJ 1996Complete nucleotide sequence of the domestic cat (Felis catus) mitochondrial genome and a transposed mtDNA tandem repeat (Numt) in the nuclear genomeGenomics33229246Google Scholar
  35. Loveridge, AJ, Lyman, T, Macdonald, DW 2002Lion Conservation Research Workshop 2: Modeling ConflictWildlife Conservation Research UnitOxford98Google Scholar
  36. Maddock, A, Anderson, A, Carlisle, F, Galli, N, James, A, Verster, A, Whitfield, W 1996Changes in lion numbers in Hluhluwe-Umfolozi ParkLammergeyer44618Google Scholar
  37. Mazák, V 1970The Barbary lion, Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758); some systematic notes, and an interim list of the specimens preserved in European museumsZeitschrift für Säugetierkunde353444Google Scholar
  38. Mazák, V 1975Notes on the Black-maned Lion of the Cape, Panthera leo melanochaita (Ch. H. Smith, 1842) and a Revised List of the Preserved SpecimensNorth-Holland Publishing Company, AmsterdamLondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Meester JAJ, Setzer HW (1971, as revised 1977) The Mammals of Africa. An Identification Manual. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  40. Moore, M 1999New Hluhluwe Lions Face Probable DeathAfrican Eye News ServiceSouth AfricaGoogle Scholar
  41. Nei, M 1996Phylogenetic analysis in molecular evolutionary geneticsAnn. Rev. Genet.30371403Google Scholar
  42. Nersting, LG, Arctander, P 2001Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kuduMol. Ecol.10711720Google Scholar
  43. O’Brien , SJ, Martenson, JS, Packer, C, Herbst, L, Vos, VD, Joslin, P, Ott-Joslin, J,  et al. 1987Biochemical genetic variation in geographic isolates of African and Asiatic lionsNatl. Geog. Res.3114124Google Scholar
  44. Patterson, BD 2004The Lions of Tsavo: Exploring the Legacy of Africa’s Notorious ManeatersMcGraw-HillNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Patterson, JH 1927The Man-eaters of Tsavo and other African AdventuresThe Macmillan CompanyNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Pitra, C, Hansen, A, Lieckfeldt, D, Arctander, P 2002An exceptional case of historical outbreeding in African sable antelope populationsMol. Ecol.1111971208Google Scholar
  47. Pusey, AE, Packer, C 1987The evolution of sex-biased dispersal in lionsBehavior101275310Google Scholar
  48. Roelke-Parker , M, Munson, L, Packer, C, Kock, R, O’Brien, SJ, Pospischil, A, Hofmann-Lehmann, R, Lutz, H, Mwamemgele, GLM, Mgasa, MN, Machange, GA, Summers, BA, Appel, MJG 1996A canine distemper epidemic in serengeti lions (Panthera leo)Nature379441445Google Scholar
  49. Rzhetsky, A, Nei, N 1992A simple method for estimating and testing minimum-evolution treesMol. Biol. Evol.9945967Google Scholar
  50. Sambrook, J, Fritsch, EF, Maniatis, T 1989Molecular Cloning a Laboratory Manual.(2nd edn)Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Schaller, GB 1972The Serengeti Lion; a Study of Predator–prey Relations: Wildlife Behavior and EcologyUniversity of Chicago PressChicagoGoogle Scholar
  52. Schneider, S, Roessli, D, Excoffier, L 2000Arlequin, Version 2.000: a Software for Population Genetics Data Analysis. Genetics and Biometry LaboratoryUniversity of GenevaGeneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  53. Shankaranarayanan, P, Singh, L 1998Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence among big cats and their hybridsCurrent Science75919923Google Scholar
  54. Smuts, GL 1978Effects of population reduction on the travels and reproduction of lions in Kruger National ParkCarnivore11728Google Scholar
  55. Spong, G, Stone, J, Creel, S, Björklund, M 2002Genetic structure of lions (Panthera leo L.) in the Selous Game Reserve: implications for the evolution of socialityJ. Evol. Biol.15945953Google Scholar
  56. Swart, MKJ, Ferguson, JWH 1997Conservation implications of genetic differentiation in southern African populations of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)Conserv. Biol.117983Google Scholar
  57. Swofford, DL 1998PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). V.4. Sinauer AssociatesSunderlandMassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  58. Takezaki, N, Rzhetsky, A, Nei, M 1995Phylogenetic test of the molecular clock and linearized treesMol. Biol. Evol.12823833Google Scholar
  59. Templeton, AR, Georgiadis, NJ 1996

    A landscape approach to conservation genetics: Conserving evolutionary processes in the African bovidae

    Avise, JHamrich, J eds. Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from NatureChapman & HallNew York398430
    Google Scholar
  60. Tosi, AJ, Morales, JC, Melnick, DJ 2000Comparison of Y chromosome and mtDNA phylogenies leads to unique inferences of macaque evolutionary historyMol. Phylo. Evol.17133144Google Scholar
  61. Hooft, WF, Groen, AF, Prins, HHT 2002Phylogeography of the African buffalo based on mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal loci: Pleistoncene origin and population expansion of the Cape buffalo subspeciesMol. Ecol.11267279Google Scholar
  62. Vereshchagin, NK 1971The cave lion and its history in the Holoarctic and on the territory of the USSRTrudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk. SSSR49123197Google Scholar
  63. West, PM, Packer, C 2002Sexual selection, temperature, and the lion’s maneScience29713391343Google Scholar
  64. Wolffe, JFV 1955Mammals of Ethiopia and Principal ReptilesRhodesian Litho, SalisburySouthern RhodesiaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Dubach
    • 1
  • B. D. Patterson
    • 2
  • M. B. Briggs
    • 3
  • K. Venzke
    • 4
  • J. Flamand
    • 5
  • P. Stander
    • 4
  • L. Scheepers
    • 4
  • R. W. Kays
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Conservation Biology, Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Conservation Biology and Research CenterBrookfield ZooBrookfieldUSA
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyField Museum of Natural HistoryChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary ServicesBrookfield ZooBrookfieldUSA
  4. 4.The Ministry of Environment and TourismNamibia
  5. 5.Natal Parks BoardRepublic of South Africa
  6. 6.Research & CollectionsNew York State MuseumAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations