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Machine Translation

, Volume 31, Issue 1–2, pp 35–47 | Cite as

Chinese–Spanish neural machine translation enhanced with character and word bitmap fonts

  • Marta R. Costa-jussàEmail author
  • David Aldón
  • José A. R. Fonollosa
Article

Abstract

Recently, machine translation systems based on neural networks have reached state-of-the-art results for some pairs of languages (e.g., German–English). In this paper, we are investigating the performance of neural machine translation in Chinese–Spanish, which is a challenging language pair. Given that the meaning of a Chinese word can be related to its graphical representation, this work aims to enhance neural machine translation by using as input a combination of: words or characters and their corresponding bitmap fonts. The fact of performing the interpretation of every word or character as a bitmap font generates more informed vectorial representations. Best results are obtained when using words plus their bitmap fonts obtaining an improvement (over a competitive neural MT baseline system) of almost six BLEU, five METEOR points and ranked coherently better in the human evaluation.

Keywords

Neural machine translation Chinese–Spanish Bitmap fonts 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and European Regional Development Fund, through the postdoctoral senior grant Ramón y Cajal and the contract TEC2015-69266-P (MINECO/FEDER, UE).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TALP Research CenterUniversitat Politècnica de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain

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