Machine Translation

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 121–133

Capturing practical natural language transformations


DOI: 10.1007/s10590-008-9039-0

Cite this article as:
Knight, K. Machine Translation (2007) 21: 121. doi:10.1007/s10590-008-9039-0


We study automata for capturing the transformations in practical natural language processing (NLP) systems, especially those that translate between human languages. For several variations of finite-state string and tree transducers, we survey answers to formal questions about their expressiveness, modularity, teachability, and generalization. We conclude that no formal device yet captures everything that is desirable, and we point to future research.


Translation Automata 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Information Sciences InstituteUniversity of Southern CaliforniaMarina del ReyUSA

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