Advertisement

Cluster Computing

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 805–816 | Cite as

Efficient and robust frame-synchronized blind audio watermarking by featuring multilevel DWT and DCT

  • Hwai-Tsu Hu
  • Jieh-Ren Chang
Article

Abstract

This paper presents a self-synchronizing blind audio watermarking method developed based on the distinctive features of multilevel discrete wavelet transform (MDWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT). In the proposed design, the repetitive pattern hidden in the 11th approximation subband is used to control frame synchronization, and the wideband signal covering the first to ninth detail subbands is used to hide binary information. Tracing the zero-crossings across the extracted synchronous signal makes it possible to recalibrate frame positions and achieve synchronous watermarking on a rational dither modulation (RDM) framework. We also developed a windowed vector modulation (WVM) scheme suited for the time as well as DCT domain to enhance watermark imperceptivity. The proposed watermarking method currently achieves a payload capacity of 86 bits per second. The results of PEAQ testing confirm that the watermarked audio signal retains quality nearly indistinguishable from the original. Compared with two existing synchronized methods designed specifically to cope with playback speed modification, the proposed MDWT–DCT–RDM–WVM method demonstrates superior robustness to commonly encountered attacks. When encountering desynchronization attacks, such as cropping and resampling time-scale modification, the proposed technique is capable of retrieving the watermark bits with a high degree of accuracy.

Keywords

Blind audio watermarking Multilevel discrete wavelet transform Discrete cosine transform Frame synchronization Windowed vector modulation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC under Grant MOST 104-2221-E-197-023.

References

  1. 1.
    Cvejic, N., Seppänen, T.: Digital Audio Watermarking Techniques and Technologies: Applications and Benchmarks. Information Science Reference, Hershey (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    He, X.: Watermarking in Audio: Key Techniques and Technologies. Cambria Press, Youngstown (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huang, J., Wang, Y., Shi, Y.Q.: A blind audio watermarking algorithm with self-synchronization. In: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 627–630 (2002)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wu, S., Huang, J., Huang, D., Shi, Y.Q.: Efficiently self-synchronized audio watermarking for assured audio data transmission. IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 51(1), 69–76 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang, X.-Y., Zhao, H.: A novel synchronization invariant audio watermarking scheme based on DWT and DCT. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 54(12), 4835–4840 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hu, H.-T., Hsu, L.-Y., Chou, H.-H.: Variable-dimensional vector modulation for perceptual-based DWT blind audio watermarking with adjustable payload capacity. Digit. Signal Process. 31, 115–123 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hu, H.-T., Hsu, L.-Y.: Robust, transparent and high-capacity audio watermarking in DCT domain. Signal Process. 109, 226–235 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lei, B., Soon, I.Y., Zhou, F., Li, Z., Lei, H.: A robust audio watermarking scheme based on lifting wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. Signal Process. 92(9), 1985–2001 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mansour, M.F., Tewfik, A.H.: Data embedding in audio using time-scale modification. IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 13(3), 432–440 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li, W., Xue, X., Lu, P.: Localized audio watermarking technique robust against time-scale modification. IEEE Trans. Multimed. 8(1), 60–69 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pun, C.M., Yuan, X.C.: Robust segments detector for de-synchronization resilient audio watermarking. IEEE Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 21(11), 2412–2424 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yuan, X.-C., Pun, C.-M., Philip Chen, C.L.: Robust Mel-Frequency Cepstral coefficients feature detection and dual-tree complex wavelet transform for digital audio watermarking. Inf. Sci. 298, 159–179 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kang, X., Yang, R., Huang, J.: Geometric invariant audio watermarking based on an LCM feature. IEEE Trans. Multimed. 13(2), 181–190 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xiang, S., Huang, J.: Histogram-based audio watermarking against time-scale modification and cropping attacks. IEEE Trans. Multimed. 9(7), 1357–1372 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xiang, S., Kim, H.J., Huang, J.: Audio watermarking robust against time-scale modification and MP3 compression. Signal Process. 88(10), 2372–2387 (2008)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang, H.-Y., Bao, D.-W., Wang, X.-Y., Niu, P.-P.: A robust content based audio watermarking using UDWT and invariant histogram. Multimed. Tools Appl. 57(3), 453–476 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fan, M.-Q., Wang, H.-X.: Statistical characteristic-based robust audio watermarking for resolving playback speed modification. Digit. Signal Process. 21(1), 110–117 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen, B., Wornell, G.W.: Quantization index modulation: a class of provably good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47(4), 1423–1443 (2001)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, L., Fang, X.: Audio watermarking robust against playback speed modification. IEICE Trans. Fundam. Electron. Commun. Comput. Sci. E94–A(12), 2889–2893 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perez-Gonzalez, F., Mosquera, C., Barni, M., Abrardo, A.: Rational dither modulation: a high-rate data-hiding method invariant to gain attacks. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53(10), 3960–3975 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hu, H.-T., Hsu, L.-Y.: A DWT-based rational dither modulation scheme for effective blind audio watermarking. Circuits Syst. Signal Process. 35(2), 553–572 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zwicker, E., Terhardt, E.: Analytical expressions for critical-band rate and critical bandwidth as a function of frequency. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 68(5), 1523–1525 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kabal, P.: An Examination and Interpretation of ITU-R BS.1387: Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality. TSP Lab Technical Report. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rossing, T.: Springer Handbook of Acoustics. Springer, New York (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronic EngineeringNational I-Lan UniversityYi-LanTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations