Cluster Computing

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 1541–1553 | Cite as

An empirical evaluation and analysis of the performance of NVM express solid state drive

  • Yongseok Son
  • Hara Kang
  • Hyuck Han
  • Heon Young Yeom
Article

Abstract

Emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technology with high throughput and scalability has considerable attraction in cloud and enterprise storage systems. The industry and academic communities made the NVMe specification to elicit the highest performance on NVM devices. While the technology is commercially viable, it is important to consider the performance of NVM devices with NVMe specification according to different I/O configurations and analyze workloads on the storage to exploit better performance. This paper provides the results of empirical evaluation and analysis of the performance on a recent NVM express solid state drive (NVMe SSD) developed by Samsung electronics, a flash-based PCIe-attached SSD built to follow NVMe specification. The maximum throughput is 2.5 GB/s and 800 MB/s for reading and writing 4 kb, respectively. We analyze the performance of NVMe SSD in terms of different performance metrics with microbenchmark and database workloads. We also perform comparison study of NVMe SSD with SATA SSD. We anticipate that the experimental results and performance analysis will provide the implications on various storage systems.

Keywords

NVM express Flash SSD Performance evaluation 

References

  1. 1.
    Agrawal, N., Prabhakaran, V., Wobber, T., Davis, J.D., Manasse, M., Panigrahy, R.: Design tradeoffs for ssd performance. In: USENIX 2008 Annual Technical Conference, Berkeley, CA, USA, ATC’08, USENIX Association, pp. 57–70 (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmed, M., Uddin, M.M., Azad, M.S., Haseeb, S.: Mysql performance analysis on a limited resource server: Fedora vs. ubuntu linux. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Spring Simulation Multiconference, Society for Computer Simulation International, p. 99 (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arteaga, D., Otstott, D., Zhao, M.: Dynamic block-level cache management for cloud computing systems. In: Conference on File and Storage Technologies (2012). http://www.cloudvps.com
  4. 4.
    Arteaga, D., Zhao, M.: Client-side flash caching for cloud systems. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Systems and Storage, New York, NY, USA, SYSTOR 2014, ACM, pp. 7:1–7:11 (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arteaga, D., Zhao, M., Riezen, P., Zwart, L.: A trace-driven analysis of solid-state caching in cloud computing systemsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, S., Ailamaki, A., Athanassoulis, M., Gibbons, P.B., Johnson, R., Pandis, I., Stoica, R.: Tpc-e vs. tpc-c: characterizing the new tpc-e benchmark via an i/o comparison study. SIGMOD Rec. 39(3), 5–10 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fiobenchmark. http://freecode.com/projects/fio. Accessed Jun 2014
  8. 8.
    Flasharray, meet the new 3rd-generation flasharray. http://www.purestorage.com/flash-arrya/. Accessed 2016
  9. 9.
    Google cloud platform. https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/disks/local-ssd. Accessed Jun 2016
  10. 10.
    Ibm system storage ds8000 easy tier. http://www.ibm.com/systems/storage/flash/720-820. Accessed 2013
  11. 11.
    Islam, N.S., Wasi-ur Rahman, M., Lu, X., Panda, D.K.: High performance design for hdfs with byte-addressability of nvm and rdma. In: Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Supercomputing, New York, NY, USA, ICS ’16, ACM, pp. 8:1–8:14 (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim, C., Park, K.-W., Park, K., Park, K.H.: Rethinking deduplication in cloud: from data profiling to blueprint. In: Networked Computing and Advanced Information Management (NCM), 2011 7th International Conference on, IEEE, pp. 101–104 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim, J., Lee, C., Lee, S., Son, I., Choi, J., Yoon, S., Lee, H.-U., Kang, S., Won, Y., Cha, J.: Deduplication in ssds: model and quantitative analysis. In: Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST), 2012 IEEE 28th Symposium on, IEEE, pp. 1–12 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim, H., Seshadri, S., Dickey, C.L., Chiu, L.: Evaluating phase change memory for enterprise storage systems: a study of caching and tiering approaches. In: Proceedings of the 12th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST 14), Santa Clara, CA, USENIX, pp. 33–45 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee, S.-W., Moon, B., Park, C., Kim, J.-M., Kim, S.-W.: A case for flash memory ssd in enterprise database applications. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, New York, NY, USA, SIGMOD ’08, ACM, pp. 1075–1086 (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee, C., Sim, D., Hwang, J., Cho, S.: F2fs: a new file system for flash storage. In: 13th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST 15), Santa Clara, CA, USENIX Association (2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moon, S., Lee, J., Sun, X., Kee, Y.-S.: Optimizing the hadoop MapReduce framework with high-performance storage devices. J. Supercomput. 71(9), 3525–3548 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    Rizvi, S., Chung, T.-S.: Flash ssd vs hdd: high performance oriented modern embedded and multimedia storage systems. In: Computer Engineering and Technology (ICCET), 2010 2nd International Conference on, vol. 7, pp. V7-297–V7-299 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Son, Y., Choi, J.W., Eom, H., Yeom, H.Y.: Optimizing the file system with variable-length i/o for fast storage devices. In: Proceedings of the 4th Asia-Pacific Workshop on Systems, New York, NY, USA, APSys ’13, ACM, pp. 14:1–14:6 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Son, Y., Song, N.Y., Han, H., Eom, H., Yeom, H.Y.: A user-level file system for fast storage devices. In: Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC), 2014 International Conference on, IEEE, pp. 258–264 (2014)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Son, Y., Han, H., Yeom, H.Y.: Optimizing file systems for fast storage devices. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Systems and Storage Conference, New York, NY, USA, SYSTOR ’15, ACM, pp. 8:1–8:6 (2015)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Son, Y., Kang, H., Han, H., Yeom, H. Y.: An empirical evaluation of nvm express ssd. In: Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 275–282 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Son, Y., Song, N.Y., Han, H., Eom, H., Yeom, H.Y.: Design and evaluation of a user-level file system for fast storage devices. Clust. Comput. 18(3), 1075–1086 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Song, N.Y., Son, Y., Han, H., Yeom, H.Y.: Efficient memory-mapped i/o on fast storage device. In: ACM Transactions on Storage (TOS), to appear (2016)Google Scholar
  27. 27.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongseok Son
    • 1
  • Hara Kang
    • 1
  • Hyuck Han
    • 2
  • Heon Young Yeom
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceDongduk Women’s UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations