Cluster Computing

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 237–253 | Cite as

Meta-operation conflict resolution for human–human interaction in collaborative feature-based CAD systems

  • Yuan Cheng
  • Fazhi He
  • Yiqi Wu
  • Dejun Zhang


Conflicts resolution is one of the key issues in maintaining consistency and in supporting smooth human–human interaction for real-time collaborative systems. This paper presents a novel approach of meta-operation conflict resolution for feature-based collaborative CAD system. Although commutative replicated data type (CRDT) is an emerging technique for conflict resolution, it is not capable of resolving conflicts among meta operations for 3D CAD systems. By defining 3 types of meta operations, this work extends CRDT capability to meta operation conflict resolution from 1D to 3D applications. The paper defines the dependency, casuality, conflict and compatible relations specific for 3D collaborative CAD systems. The conflicts of feature-based operations are automatically detected by tracking topological entity changes with the assistance of a persistent data structure, topological entity structure tree (\(TES\_Tree\)). An efficient commutativity-based confliction combination method is proposed to preserve the design intention of each user in a transparent way and maintains the eventual consistent state of the system. The proposed methods are tested in a prototype system with case studies, time complexity analysis and correctness proof.


Collaborative CAD Feature-based CAD Human–human interaction Meta-operation Conflict resolution 



The work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC Grant Nos. 61472289 and 61502353) and Hubei Province Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015CFB254). The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers and the editor for their comments to improve the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Software EngineeringWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.School of Information ManagementWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.School of Computer ScienceWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

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