Cluster Computing

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 873–886 | Cite as

PPAS: privacy protection authentication scheme for VANET

  • Hui ZhuEmail author
  • Tingting Liu
  • Guanghui Wei
  • Hui Li


Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) can increase the traffic efficiency by allowing arbitrary vehicles to broadcast the messages to other vehicles and road side units (RSUs). But due to the openness of the wireless network, VANET is very vulnerable to forgery attack. Thus, the security and privacy of the messages should be provided, to make sure that the real identity of vehicles can be traceable by authorized party while not be revealed to other vehicles. The existing solutions can neither satisfy the privacy requirement nor have an effective message verification scheme on vehicles. A secure and privacy protect authentication scheme is proposed in this paper, which comprises local authentication and roaming authentication for VANET based on bilinear pairing and can provide secure communications and anonymous authentication among RSUs and vehicles.


Vehicular ad hoc network Authentication Anonymity Roaming Privacy protection 



This work was sponsored by Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (2011JQ8042), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. K5051301017), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60772136), and the National Science & Technology Major Projects (No. 2012ZX03001009).


  1. 1.
    Kim, I., Lee, D., Kim, K.J., Lee, J.: Flexible authorization in home network environments. Clust. Comput. 15, 3–15 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s10586-010-0142-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Park, C., Kim, H., Jung, I.: Traffic-aware routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. Clust. Comput. 15(1), 27–36 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s10586-010-0146-3 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hubaux, J.P., Capkun, S., Luo, J.: The security and privacy of smart vehicles. IEEE Secur. Priv. 2(3), 49–55 (2004). doi: 10.1109/MSP.2004.26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sampigethaya, K., Huang, L., Li, M., Poovendran, R., Matsuura, K., Sezaki, K.: CARAVAN: providing location privacy for VANET. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Embedded Security in Cars (ESCAR05) (2005). doi: Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wasef, A., Shen, X.: REP: location privacy for VANETs using random encryption periods. Mob. Netw. Appl. 15, 172–185 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11036-009-0175-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qin, B., Wu, Q.: Distributed privacy-preserving secure aggregation in vehicular communication. In: Third International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems, pp. 100–107 (2011). doi: 10.1109/INCoS.2011.78 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lu, R., Lin, X., Zhu, H.: ECPP: efficient conditional privacy preservation protocol for secure vehicular communications. In: The Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1229–1237 (2008). doi: 10.1109/CIS.2010.120 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wasef, A., Lu, R., Lin, X., Shen, X.: Complementing public key infrastructure to secure vehicular ad hoc networks. Wirel. Commun. 17(5), 22–28 (2010). doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jiang, Y., Shi, M., Shen, X., Lin, C.: BAT: a robust signature scheme for vehicular networks using binary authentication tree. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 8(4), 1974–1983 (2009). doi: 10.1109/T-WC.2008.080280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fujii, A., Ohtake, G., Hanaoka, G., Ogawa, K.: Anonymous authentication scheme for subscription services. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference, KES 2007 and XV. Italian Workshop on Neural Network Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: Part III, pp. 975–983. Springer, Berlin (2007). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74829-8_119 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Slamanig, Stingl, C.: Investigating anonymity in group based anonymous authentication. Future Identity Inf. Soc. 298, 268–281 (2009). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-03315-5_20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sun, Y., Feng, Z., Hu, Q.: An efficient distributed key management scheme for group-signature based anonymous authentication in VANET. Secur. Commun. Netw. 5(1), 79–86 (2012). doi: 10.1002/sec.302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang, S., Tao, J., Yuan, Y.: Anonymous authentication-oriented vehicular privacy protection technology research in VANET. In: International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), pp. 4365–4368 (2011). doi: 10.1109/ICECENG.2011.6057434 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xue, X., Ding, J.: LPA: a new location-based privacy-preserving authentication protocol in VANET. Secur. Commun. Netw. 5(1), 69–78 (2012). doi: 10.1002/sec.305 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Park, Y., Sur, C., Rhee, K.H.: A privacy-preserving location assurance protocol for location-aware services in VANETs. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 61(4), 779–791 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s11277-011-0432-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chim, T.W., Yiu, S.M., Hui, L.C.K., Li, V.O.K.: SPECS: secure and privacy enhancing communications schemes for VANETs. Ad Hoc Netw. 9(2), 189–203 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2010.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baek, J., Safavi-Naini, R., Susilo, W.: Universal designated verifier signature proof (or how to efficiently prove knowledge of a signature). In: Advances in Cryptology-Asiacrypt’05, pp. 644–661. Springer, Berlin (2005). doi: 10.1007/11593447_35 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang, F., Safavi-Naini, R., Susilo, W.: An efficient signature scheme from bilinear pairings and its applications. In: International Workshop on Practice and Theory in Public Key Cryptography-PKC’2004. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 277–290. Springer, Berlin (2004). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-24632-9_20 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bellare, M., Canetti, R., Krawczyk, H.: A modular approach to the design and analysis of authentication and key exchange protocols. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Symposium on the Theory of Computing, pp. 419–428 (1998). doi: 10.1145/276698.276854 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Canetti, R., Goldreich, O., Halevi, S.: The random oracle methodology, revisited. J. ACM 51(4), 557–594 (2004). doi: 10.1145/1008731.1008734 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tin, Y.S.T., Vasanta, H., Boyd, C.: Protocols with security proofs for mobile applications. In: Information Security and Privacy: 9th Australasian Conference (ACISP 2004). LNCS, vol. 3108, pp. 358–369. Springer, Berlin (2004). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-27800-9_31 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    QualNet Simulator: Accessed 17 June 2012
  23. 23.
    Lin, X., Sun, X., Ho, P.-H., Shen, X.: GSIS: a secure and privacy-preserving protocol for vehicular communications. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 56(6), 3442–3456 (2007). doi: 10.1109/TVT.2007.906878 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++ Library (MIRACL). Accessed 10 May 2012
  25. 25.
    Wu, Q., Domingo-Ferrer, J.: Balanced trustworthiness, safety, and privacy in vehicle-to-vehicle communications. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 59(2), 559–573 (2010). doi: 10.1109/TVT.2009.2034669 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Integrated Service NetworksXidian UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Network and Data Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan ProvinceChengduChina

Personalised recommendations