The utility of the “Glowing Head” mouse for breast cancer metastasis research

  • Mohammad A. Alzubi
  • David C. Boyd
  • J. Chuck HarrellEmail author
Technical Note


The expression of cellular reporters to label cancer cells, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and luciferase, can stimulate immune responses and effect tumor growth. Recently, a mouse model that expresses GFP and luciferase in the anterior pituitary gland was generated to tolerize mice to these proteins; the “Glowing Head” mouse. Mice were obtained from a commercial vendor, bred, and then used for tumor growth and metastasis studies. The transgene expression of luciferase was assessed within tumor-naïve mice as well as mice with mammary tumors or metastases. Tumor-free mice with white fur, compared to black fur, allowed for stronger luciferase transgene expression to be observed in the pituitary, sternum, and femur. Growth of four different luciferase-expressing mouse cancer cell lines readily occurred in the mammary gland. Though sternum expression of the luciferase transgene occurred in cancer-free mice, growth or death of luciferase positive cancer cells in the lung could be observed. Liver metastases seeded by portal vein injections of luciferase positive cancer cell lines were completely distinct from luciferase transgene expression. Though lung and brain metastasis studies have limitations, the Glowing Head mouse can be useful to inhibit immune system rejection of luciferase or GFP expressing cancer cells. This mouse model is most beneficial for studies of mammary tumors and liver metastases.


Luciferase IVIS imaging Glowing head mouse PyMT Metastasis 



IVIS imaging was performed with instrumentation by the Cancer Mouse Models Shared Resource Core supported, in part, with funding from NIH-NCI Cancer Center Support Grant P30 CA016059. This work was supported by funds to JCH by the VCU Massey Cancer Center.

Author contributions

Designed experiments; MAA, DCB, JCH, performed cell experiments; MAA, DCB, performed animal experiments; MAA, wrote the manuscript; DCB, JCH, supervised the study; JCH, all authors reviewed and edited the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Integrative Life Sciences ProgramVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  3. 3.Massey Cancer CenterVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

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