Clinical & Experimental Metastasis

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 361–369

The in vitro and in vivo experimental evidences disclose the chemopreventive effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cancer invasion and metastasis

Review

DOI: 10.1007/s10585-010-9334-z

Cite this article as:
Weng, CJ. & Yen, GC. Clin Exp Metastasis (2010) 27: 361. doi:10.1007/s10585-010-9334-z

Abstract

The Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst, an edible mushroom, has been utilized for centuries in East Asia to prevent or treat various diseases and to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis. The primary bioactive compounds are commonly considered to be polysaccharides and triterpenoids. Evidence that G. lucidum extract and its bioactive compounds may have a potential inhibitory effect on cancer invasion and metastasis is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. This review assembles and summarizes past publications on the in vitro and in vivo effects of G. lucidum on cancer invasion and metastasis, and concludes that these effects occur through modulation of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) or Akt kinase (protein kinase B). Activation of these kinases subsequently inhibits the activity or expression of activator protein-1(AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), resulting in the down-regulation of urokinase plaminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-8, inducible nitric oxide (NO) and β1-integrin as shown in various cell lines or animal models. G. lucidum may be an effective nutraceutical used in the prevention of cancer metastasis. To further elucidate the bioactive components present in G. lucidum and the anti-metastatic mechanisms underlying these compounds, more in vitro and in vivo tests as well as clinical trials are necessary.

Keywords

Anti-invasion Anti-metastasis Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Triterpenoids 

Abbreviations

Akt kinase

Protein kinase B

AP-1

Activator protein-1

CAM

Chick chorioallantoic membrane assay

CDK

Cyclin-dependent kinase

ECM

Extracellular matrix

ERK1/2

Extracellular signal regulated kinase

GLE

G. lucidum extract

GLPP

G. lucidum polysaccharides peptide

GTE

Green tea extract

IL

Interleukin

LLC

Lewis lung carcinoma

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

MT-1 MMP

Membrane type 1-MMP

NF-κB

Nuclear factor-kappa B

NO

Nitric oxide

PI 3-kinase

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PMA

Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate

TGF-β1

Transforming growth factor-β1

Th1

T-helper type 1

uPA

Urokinase plaminogen activator

uPAR

uPA receptor

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Applied Science of LivingTainan University of TechnologyYongkangTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and BiotechnologyNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations