Evaluation of a CXCR4 antagonist in a xenograft mouse model of inflammatory breast cancer
- 436 Downloads
CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling, being important in the homing of cancer cells to lungs, bone and other organs, is a promising therapeutic target. Our purpose was to determine whether a peptide-based antagonist of CXCR4 would reduce primary tumor growth and/or metastasis in a preclinical mouse model of inflammatory breast cancer. We improved an existing model of inflammatory breast cancer for this study by luciferase transfection of SUM149 cells and the monitoring of such cells in mice by imaging and the luciferase assay. We implanted 2 × 106 SUM49-Luc cells along with matrigel into the left thoracic mammary fat pad of nude mice to produce tumors. Our mouse model exhibited important features of inflammatory breast cancer, namely, aggressive local disease, local metastases and distant metastases. To evaluate the efficacy of a CXCR4 antagonist CTCE-9908, by itself or in combination with paclitaxel, we treated groups of ten mice each with CTCE-9908 (25 mg/kg, injected subcutaneously 5 days/week), control peptide SC-9908, paclitaxel (10 mg/kg, injected subcutaneously twice a week), and CTCE-9908 plus paclitaxel concurrently. We assessed all mice weekly by whole-body luciferase imaging to quantify relative primary tumor burden and distant metastases. At the end of the experiment, we quantified primary tumors by weight and lung metastases by luciferase activity assay on tissue lysates. Paclitaxel, a known chemotherapeutic, inhibited primary tumor growth in our model (P < 0.05). CTCE-9908 did not significantly inhibit primary tumor growth or lung metastases as compared to control groups, without or with paclitaxel (P > 0.05). However, CTCE-9908 as a single therapy inhibited organ-specific metastasis to leg (P < 0.05 by chi-squared test and by two-sample t-test).
KeywordsInflammatory breast cancer Metastasis CXCR4 CXCL12 SDF-1 Targeted therapy CTCE-9908
We thank Suren Soghomonyan (Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging) for help with the luciferase imaging, and Donald Wong and Walter Korz (Chemokine Therapeutics, Vancouver, BC) for discussions. These studies were supported in part by grants R21 DK067682 (AL) and CA16672 (Core) from the National Institutes of Health, DAMD17-03-1-0669 from the United States Army Medical Research and Material Command (AL), a research grant from Chemokine Therapeutics, Vancouver, BC, and Clinical Investigator Award from the Society of Surgical Oncology (AL).
- 2.Wu M, Merajver SD (2005–2006) Molecular biology of inflammatory breast cancer: applications to diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Breast Dis 22(1):25–34Google Scholar
- 14.Zhang D, Lafortune TA, Krishnamurthy S, Esteva FJ, Cristofanilli M, Liu P, Lucci A, Singh B, Hung MC, Hortobagyi GN, Ueno NT (2009) Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor reverses mesenchymal to epithelial phenotype and inhibits metastasis in inflammatory breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 15(21):6639–6648Google Scholar
- 16.Orimo A, Gupta PB, Sgroi DC, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Delaunay T, Naeem R, Carey VJ, Richardson AL, Weinberg RA (2005) Stromal fibroblasts present in invasive human breast carcinomas promote tumor growth and angiogenesis through elevated SDF-1/CXCL12 secretion. Cell 121(3):335–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Kim SY, Lee CH, Midura BV, Yeung C, Mendoza A, Hong SH, Ren L, Wong D, Korz W, Merzouk A, Salari H, Zhang H, Hwang ST, Khanna C, Helman LJ (2008) Inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine pathway reduces the development of murine pulmonary metastases. Clin Exp Metast 25(3):201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Cabioglu N, Gong Y, Islam R, Broglio KR, Sneige N, Sahin A, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Morandi P, Bucana C, Hortobagyi GN, Cristofanilli M (2007) Expression of growth factor and chemokine receptors: new insights in the biology of inflammatory breast cancer. Ann Oncol 18(6):1021–1029CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar