Temperatures across Europe: evidence of time trends

  • Luis A. Gil-AlanaEmail author
  • Laura Sauci


This paper deals with the analysis of the temperatures in a group of 29 stations located in twelve European countries by looking at the coefficients in a linear time trend regression model and allowing for long memory patterns in the error term. The results indicate that long memory is present in practically all cases, and the time trend coefficients are statistically significant in the majority of the cases implying evidence of increasing warming trends. This pattern is particularly noticeable in the case of several stations located across Italy and France, which might be related with micro climates affecting these regions.


European temperatures Long memory Time trends 



Comments from the Editor and three anonymous reviewers are gratefully acknowledged.

Funding information

Prof. Luis A. Gil-Alana gratefully acknowledges financial support from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (ECO2017-85503-R).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Economics and NCID (ICS)University of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  2. 2.Universidad Francisco de VitoriaMadridSpain

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