Modelling consumption behaviour changes in a B2C electric vehicle-sharing system: a perceived systemic risk perspective

  • Jing LanEmail author
  • Diana Mangalagiu
  • Yuge Ma
  • Thomas F. Thornton
  • Dajian Zhu


Most sharing economy business models implement win-win strategies to promote business viability on the one hand coupled with environmental and social sustainability on the other hand. To achieve this purpose, a lower cumulative consumption pattern is a critical benchmark for the effectiveness of such strategies in the sharing economy. In this paper, we define and model consumption patterns and behaviour changes from the perspective of perceived systemic risks (both scarcity and reciprocity risk) in the sharing economy and test our proposed model in the case of EVCARD, an electric vehicle (EV)-sharing system in Shanghai, China. Our analysis shows that the perceived scarcity risk of the EV-sharing significantly affects access-based consumption behaviour, collaborative consumption behaviour and substitutive behaviour intentions. We also show that the perceived reciprocity risk only has a significant effect on access-based consumption behaviour intentions. Moreover, the moderating effects of access variables are tested. We conclude that sharing businesses can achieve their win-win strategies by mitigating perceived systemic risks, influencing the consumer’s desire and capability to substitute private ownership with access-based, collaborative consumption.



This paper benefited from the thoughtful comments of two anonymous reviewers. This research is part of the EU-funded H2020 project GREEN–WIN–Green Growth and Win–Win Strategies for Sustainable Climate Action (Grant Agreement No 642018;

Supplementary material

10584_2019_2439_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 20 kb)


  1. Acquier A, Daudigeos T, Pinkse J (2017) Promises and paradoxes of the sharing economy: an organizing framework. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 125:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akyelken N, Banister D, Givoni M (2018) The sustainability of shared mobility in London: the dilemma for governance. Sustainability 10(2):420. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson JC, Gerbing DW (1988) Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychol Bull 103(3):411–423. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azjen I (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 50(2):179–211. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bardhi F, Eckhardt GM (2012) Access-based consumption: the case of car sharing. J Consum Res 39(4):881–898. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauer R (1967) Consumer behavior as risk taking. In: Cox D (ed) Risk taking and information handling in consumer behavior. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  7. Belk R (2010) Sharing. J Consum Res 36(5):715–734. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belk R (2014) You are what you can access: sharing and collaborative consumption online. J Bus Res 67(8):1595–1600. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benoit S, Baker TL, Bolton RN, Gruber T, Kandampully J (2017) A triadic framework for collaborative consumption (cc): motives, activities and resources and capabilities of actors. J Bus Res 79:219–227. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Böcker L, Meelen T (2016) Sharing for people, planet or profit? Analysing motivations for intended sharing economy participation. Environ InnovSoc Trans 23:28–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Botsman R (2013). The sharing economy lacks a shared definition. Available from: <> (Accessed April/08, 2018)
  12. Botsman R (2017) Who can you trust? Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Botsman R, Rogers R (2010). What’s mine is yours: the rise of collaborative consumption. Harper BusinessGoogle Scholar
  14. Buchanan JM (1962) Politics, policy, and the pigovian margins. Economica 29(113):17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bradley K, Pargman D (2017) The sharing economy as the commons of the 21st century. Camb J Reg Econ Soc 10(2):231–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen HS, Chen CY, Chen HK, Hsieh T (2012) A study of relationships among green consumption attitude, perceived risk, perceived value toward hydrogen-electric motorcycle purchase intention. Aasri Procedia 2:163–168. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheng M (2016) Sharing economy: a review and agenda for future research. Int J Hosp Manag 57:60–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cherry CE, Pidgeon NF (2018) Is sharing the solution? Exploring public acceptability of the sharing economy. J Clean Prod 195:939–948. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen MJ (2016) Sharing in the new economy. In: The future of consumer society: prospects for sustainability in the new economy. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen BD, Kietzmann J (2014) Ride on! Mobility business models for the sharing economy. Organ Environ 27(3):279–296. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Demailly D, Novel A-S (2014) The sharing economy: make it sustainable. IDDRI, ParisGoogle Scholar
  22. Edbring EG, Lehner M, Mont O (2016) Exploring consumer attitudes to alternative models of consumption: motivations and barriers. J Clean Prod 123:5–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Featherman MS, Pavlou PA (2003). Predicting e-services adoption: a perceived risk facets perspective. Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  24. Forno F, Garibaldi R (2015) Sharing economy in travel and tourism: the case of home-swapping in Italy. J Qual Assur Hosp Tour 16(2):202–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Habibi MR, Kim A, Laroche M (2016) From sharing to exchange: an extended framework of dual modes of collaborative non-ownership consumption. J Assoc Consum Res 1(2):277–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamari J, Sjöklint M, Ukkonen A (2016). The sharing economy: why people participate in collaborative consumption. J Assoc Inf Sci Technol, 67(9).
  27. Hartl B, Hofmann E, Kirchler E (2016) Do we need rules for “what’s mine is yours”? Governance in collaborative consumption communities. J Bus Res 69(8):2756–2763. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lamberton CP, Rose RL (2012) When is ours better than mine? a framework for understanding and altering participation in commercial sharing systems. Soc Sci Electron Publ 76(4):109–125. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lan J, Ma Y, Zhu D, Mangalagiu D, Thornton TF (2017). Enabling value co-creation in the sharing economy: the case of mobike. Sustainability, 9(9).
  30. Lawson SJ, Gleim MR, Perren R, Hwang J (2016) Freedom from ownership: an exploration of access-based consumption. J Bus Res 69(8):2615–2623. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leismann K, Schmitt M, Rohn H, Baedeker C (2013) Collaborative consumption: towards a resource-saving consumption culture. Resources 2(3):184–203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lindloff K, Pieper N, Badelow NC, Woisetschläger DM (2014) Drivers of carsharing diffusion in Germany: an actor-centred approach. Int J Automot Technol Manag 14(3/4):217–245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu W, Oosterveer P, Spaargaren G (2016) Promoting sustainable consumption in China: a conceptual framework and research review. J Clean Prod 134:13–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lorek S, Spangenberg JH (2014) Sustainable consumption within a sustainable economy – beyond green growth and green economies. J Clean Prod 63(2):33–44. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ma Y, Rong K, Mangalagiu D, Thornton TF, Zhu D (2018) Co-evolution between urban sustainability and business ecosystem innovation: evidence from the sharing mobility sector in Shanghai. J Clean Prod 188:942–953. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ma Y, Rong K, Luo Y, Wang Y, Mangalagiu D, Thornton TF (2019) Value co-creation for sustainable consumption and production in the sharing economy in China. J Clean Prod 208:1148–1158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Martin CJ (2016) The sharing economy: a pathway to sustainability or a nightmarish form of neoliberal capitalism? Ecol Econ 121:149–159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martin EW, Shaheen SA (2011) Greenhouse gas emission impacts of carsharing in North America. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 12(4):1074–1086. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Martin E, Shaheen SA, Lidicker J (2010) Impact of carsharing on household vehicle holdings. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2143(1):150–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ostrom A, acobucci D (1995) Consumer trade-offs and the evaluation of services. J Mark 59(1):17–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Palgan YV, Zvolska L, Mont O (2016) Sustainability framings of accommodation sharing. Environ Innov Soc Trans 23:70–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Perboli G, Ferrero F, Musso S, Vesco A (2017) Business models and tariff simulation in car-sharing services. Transp Res A Policy Pract 37:501–518. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peter JP, Ryan MJ (1976) An investigation of perceived risk at the brand level. J Mark Res 13(2):184–188. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Plott CR, Zeiler K (2005) The willingness to pay-willingness to accept gap, the “endowment effect,” subject misconceptions, and experimental procedures for eliciting valuations. Am Econ Rev 95(3):530–545. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ravenelle AJ (2017) Sharing economy workers: selling, not sharing. Camb J Reg Econ Soc 10(2):281–295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roos D, Hahn R (2017) Does shared consumption affect consumers’ values, attitudes, and norms? A panel study. J Bus Res 77:113–123. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Scaraboto D (2015) Selling, sharing, and everything in between: the hybrid economies of collaborative networks. J Consum Res 42:152–176. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schaefers T, Lawson SJ, Kukar-Kinney M (2016) How the burdens of ownership promote consumer usage of access-based services. Mark Lett 27(3):569–577. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schor JB (2017) Does the sharing economy increase inequality within the eighty percent?: findings from a qualitative study of platform providers. Camb J Reg Econ Soc 2017:10–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shaheen SA, Cohen AP (2013) Carsharing and personal vehicle services: worldwide market developments and emerging trends. Int J Sustain Transp 7(1):5–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. SIC (2017) China sharing economy development report. State Information Center, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  52. Srnicek N (2017) Platform capitalism. WileyGoogle Scholar
  53. Standing G (2016) The corruption of capitalism: why rentiers thrive and work does not pay. Biteback Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Thornton TF, Ma Y, Rong K, Mangalagiu D, Lan J (2018) Disruptive innovation and win-win strategies for the sharing mobility economy. Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilhelms MP, Henkel S, Falk T (2017) To earn is not enough: a means-end analysis to uncover peer-providers' participation motives in peer-to-peer carsharing. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 125:38–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yoon YS, Lee HW (2017) Perceived risks, role, and objectified trustworthiness information in the sharing economy. Ninth Int Conf Ubiquitous and Future Netw IEEE:326–331.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EconomicsHenan University of Economics and LawZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.NEOMA Business SchoolMont-Saint-AignanFrance
  3. 3.Environmental Change InstituteUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  4. 4.School of Economics and ManagementTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations