Climatic Change

, Volume 141, Issue 4, pp 671–684 | Cite as

The climate in Zafra from 1750 to 1840: temperature indexes from documentary sources

  • M. I. Fernández-Fernández
  • M. C. Gallego
  • F. Domínguez-Castro
  • R. M. Trigo
  • J. M. Vaquero


This article shows the first monthly series of a temperature index for the region of Zafra, located in the southwest of Spain, during the period 1750–1840 using weekly weather descriptions. Three different index categories are established (−1, 0, and 1). We compare the index series of temperature in Zafra with the early instrumental data available in the southwest of Iberian Peninsula in order to assess the quality of these indices series. In addition, we characterize the synoptic situation over the North Atlantic region during the period 1750–1840 for the seasons with highest seasonal percentages of cold and warm weeks in each season. The overall configuration of the particularly cold (warm) weeks is seasonally dependent and makes sense from a synoptic perspective. Finally, we analyze the effects on climate in Zafra of important eruptions which took place during the period 1750–1840.


Iberian Peninsula Synoptic Situation North Atlantic Region Documentary Source Monthly Anomaly 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank the financing from the Junta de Extremadura (Research Group Grant GR15137). Fernando Domínguez-Castro expresses his gratitude to the EU and Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for funding, in the frame of the collaborative international consortium IMDROFLOOD financed under the ERA-NET Cofund WaterWorks2014 Call. This ERA-NET is an integral part of the 2015 Joint Activities developed by the Water Challenges for a Changing World Joint Programme Initiative (Water JPI).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. I. Fernández-Fernández
    • 1
  • M. C. Gallego
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Domínguez-Castro
    • 3
  • R. M. Trigo
    • 4
  • J. M. Vaquero
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de FísicaUniversidad de ExtremaduraBadajozSpain
  2. 2.Instituto Universitario de Investigación del Agua, Cambio Climático y Sostenibilidad (IACYS)Universidad de ExtremaduraBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Instituto Pirenaico de EcologíaConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IPE-CSIC)ZaragozaSpain
  4. 4.Instituto Dom Luiz (IDL), Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal

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