Climatic Change

, Volume 128, Issue 3–4, pp 381–393 | Cite as

Cross-sectoral interactions of adaptation and mitigation measures

  • Pam M. BerryEmail author
  • Sally Brown
  • Minpeng Chen
  • Areti Kontogianni
  • Olwen Rowlands
  • Gillian Simpson
  • Michalis Skourtos


Adaptation and mitigation are complementary strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change, yet are often considered separately. This paper examines the literature for evidence of the interactions of adaptation and mitigation measures across the agriculture, biodiversity, coasts, forests, urban and water sectors, focusing on Europe. It found that often adaptation and mitigation synergies and conflicts were not explicitly mentioned within a sector, let alone between sectors. Most measures, however, were found to have an effect on another sector, resulting in neutral, positive (synergies) or negative (conflicts) interactions within and between sectors. Many positive cross-sectoral interactions involved biodiversity or water and thus these could represent good starting places for the implementation of integrated, cross-sectoral strategies. Previous studies suggest that adaptation and mitigation are undertaken on different time and geographical scales; this study found many local scale measures which could facilitate integration between both adaptation and mitigation. It is important that cross-sectoral interaction of adaptation and mitigation measures are explicitly recognised if they are to be mainstreamed into policy, so that positive outcomes are enhanced and unintended consequences avoided.


Adaptation Measure Mitigation Measure Green Roof Conservation Agriculture Green Infrastructure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No. 244031 (The CLIMSAVE Project; Climate change integrated assessment methodology for cross-sectoral adaptation and vulnerability in Europe; CLIMSAVE is an endorsed project of the Global Land Project of the IGBP.

Supplementary material

10584_2014_1214_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 23 kb)
10584_2014_1214_MOESM2_ESM.docx (56 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 55 kb)


  1. Adger WN, Arnell NW, Tompkins EL (2005) Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Glob Environ Chang 15:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen CT, Foster IDL, Pratt CJ (1999) The role of urban surfaces (permeable pavements) in regulating drainage and evaporation: development of a laboratory simulation experiment. Hydrol Process 13:597–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews JE, Burgess D, Cave RR, Coombes EG, Jickells TD, Parkes DJ, Turner RK (2006) Biogeochemical value of managed realignment, Humber estuary, UK. Sci Total Environ 371:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Artmann N, Manz H, Heiselberg P (2008) Parameter study on performance of building cooling by night-time ventilation. Renew Energy 33:2589–2598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balvanera P, Pfisterer AB, Buchmann N, He J-S, Nakashizuka T, Raffaelli D, Schmid B (2006) Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecol Lett 9:1146–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berry PM and Chen M (this volume) Adaptation and mitigation synergies and conflicts in the agricultural sector: a comparison across Europe and China.Google Scholar
  7. Berry P, Paterson J, Cabeza M, et al. (2008) MACIS - Minimisation of and Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity. Deliverables 2.2 and 2.3: Meta-analysis of adaptation and mitigation measures across the EU25 and their impacts and recommendations how negative impacts can be avoided. Last accessed February 2013
  8. Biesbroek GR, Swart RJ, van der Knaap WG (2009) The mitigation–adaptation dichotomy and the role of spatial planning. Hab Int 33:230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Convention on Biological Diversity (2005) Report of the meeting of the Ad Hoc technical expert group on biodiversity and adaptation to climate change. UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/11/INF/5Google Scholar
  10. Bosello F, Carraro C, de Cian E (2013) Adaptation can help mitigation: an integrated approach to post-2012 climate policy. Environ Dev Econ 18:270–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brenneisen S (2006) Space for urban wildlife: designing green roofs as habitats in Switzerland. Urban Hab 4:27–36Google Scholar
  12. Brockerhoff EG, Jactel H, Parrotta JA, Quine CP, Sayer J (2008) Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity? Biodivers Conserv 17:925–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caparrós A, Cerdá E, Ovando P, Campos P (2010) Carbon sequestration with reforestations and biodiversity-scenic values. Environ Resour Econ 45:49–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chance T (2009) Towards sustainable residential communities; the Beddington zero energy development (BedZED) and beyond. Environ Urban 21:527–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chang YH, Scrimshaw MD, MacLeod CL, Lester JN (2001) Flood defence in the Blackwater Estuary, Essex, UK: the impact of sedimentological and geochemical changes on salt marsh development in the Tollesbury managed realignment site. Mar Pollut Bull 42:469–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Choi Y, Wang Y, Hsieh Y-P, Robinson L (2001) Vegetation succession and carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida: evidence from carbon isotopes. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 15:311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daccache A, Keay C, Jones RJA, Weatherhead EK, Stalham MA, Knox JW (2012) Climate change and land suitability for potato production in England and Wales: impacts and adaptation. J Agric Sci 150:161–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davies ZG, Edmondson JL, Heinemeyer A, Leake JR, Gaston KJ (2011) Mapping an urban ecosystem service: quantifying above‐ground carbon storage at a city‐wide scale. J Appl Ecol 48:1125–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dessai S, Hulme M (2007) Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions to climate change uncertainties: a case study on water resources management in the East of England. Glob Environ Chang 17:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Waterschap Regge en Dinkel (2011) De Doorbraak Project. Accessed June 2013
  21. European Commission (2009) White Paper on Adapting to climate change: towards a European framework for action. COM(2009) 147 Commission of the European Communities, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  22. European Commission (2011) Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020. COM (2011) 244 Commission of the European Communities, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  23. European Commission (2013a) An EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change SWD(2013) 132 European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  24. European Commission (2013b) Technical information on Green Infrastructure (GI). Enhancing Europe’s Natural Capital COM(2013) 249 European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  25. European Commission (2013c) An EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change Impact Assessment1 SWD(2013) 132 European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  26. Few R, Brown K, Tompkins EL (2004) Scaling adaptation: climate change response andcoastal management in the UK. Working Paper 60, Tyndall centre for climate change research, University of East Anglia, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  27. Fioretti R, Palla A, Lanza LG, Principi P (2010) Green roof energy and water related performance in the Mediterranean climate. Build Environ 45:1890–1904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Garbutt A, Wolters M (2008) The natural regeneration of salt marsh on formerly reclaimed land. Appl Veg Sci 11:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Giannakopoulos C, Le Sager P, Bindi M, Moriondo M, Kostopoulou E, Goodess CM (2009) Climatic changes and associated impacts in the Mediterranean resulting from a 2OC global warming. Global Planet Chang 68:209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gill SE, Handley JF, Ennos AR, Pauleit S (2007) Adapting cities for climate change: th role of the green infrastructure. Built Environ 33:115–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Graddon AR, Kuczera G, Hardy MJ (2011) A flexible modelling environment for integrated urban water harvesting and re-use. Water Sci Technol 63:2268–2278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hallegatte S (2009) Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Glob Environ Chang 19:240–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hannah L (2010) A global conservation system for climate‐change adaptation. Conserv Biol 24:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harrison PA, Holman IP, Berry PM (this volume) Assessing cross-sectoral climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: An Introduction to the CLIMSAVE projectGoogle Scholar
  35. Harry S, Morad M (2013) Sustainable development and climate change: beyond mitigation and adaptation. Local Econ 28:358–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Howden SM, Soussana J-F, Tubiello FN, Chhetri N, Dunlop M, Meinke H (2007) Adapting agriculture to climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19691–19696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jarvis A, Lau C, Cook S, Wollenberg E, Hansen J, Bonilla O, Challinor A (2011) An integrated adaptation and mitigation framework for developing agricultural research: synergies and trade-offs. Exp Agric 47:185–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kleerekoper L, van Esch M, Salcedo TB (2012) How to make a city climate-proof: addressing the urban heat island effect. Res Conserv Recycl 64:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Klein RJT, Huq S, Denton F, Downing TE, Richels RG, Robinson JB, Toth FL (2007) Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. University Press, Cambridge, pp 745–777Google Scholar
  40. Lamberti A, Archetti R, Kramer M, Paphitis D, Mosso C, Di Risio M (2005) European experience of low crested structures for coastal management. Coast Eng 52:841–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Laukkonen J, Blanco PK, Lenhart J, Keiner M, Cavric B, Kinuthia-Nenga C (2009) Combining climate change adaptation and mitigation measures at the local level. Hab Int 33:287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Loomis MJ, Craft CB (2010) Carbon sequestration and nutrient (Nitrogen, Phosphorus) accumulation in river-Dominated tidal marshes, Georgia. Soil Sci Soc Am J 74:1028–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Louters T, van den Berg JH, Mulder JPM (1998) Geomorphological changes of the Oosterschelde tidal system during and after the implementation of the delta project. J Coast Res 14:1134–1151Google Scholar
  44. Luisetti T, Turner KR, Bateman IJ, Morse-Jones S, Adams C, Fonseca L (2011) Coastal and marine ecosystem services valuation for policy and management: Managed realignment case studies in England. Ocean Coast Manag 54:212–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lutsey N, Sperling D (2008) America’s bottom-up climate change mitigation policy. Energ Policy 36:673–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Munang RI, Thiaw I, Alverson K, Mumbe M, Liu J, Rivington M et al (2013) Climate change and ecosystem-based adaptation: a new pragmatic approach to buffering climate change impacts. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 5(1):67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nabuurs GJ, Pussinen A, Brusselen J, Schelhaa MJ (2007) Future harvesting pressure on European forests. Eur J For Res 126:391–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Olesen JE, Rubæk GH, Heidmann T, Hansen S, Børgensen CD (2004) Effect of climate change on greenhouse gas emissions from arable crop rotations. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 70:147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Plantinga AJ, Wu J-J (2003) Co-benefits from carbon sequestration in forests: evaluating reductions in agricultural externalities from an afforestation policy in Wisconsin. Land Econ 79:74–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schekkerman H, Meininger PL, Meire PM (1994) Changes in the waterbird populations of the Oosterschelde (SW Netherlands) as a result of large-scale coastal engineering works. Hydrobiologia 282–283:509–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schreurs MA (2008) From the bottom up local and subnational climate change politics. J Environ Dev 17:343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shepherd D et al (2007) Modelling the effects and economics of managed realignment on the cycling and storage of nutrients, carbon and sediments in the Blackwater estuary UK. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 73:355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Singh SK, Reddy KR (2011) Regulation of photosynthesis, fluorescence, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) under drought. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 105:40–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Six J, Ogle SM, Conant RT, Mosier AR, Paustian K (2004) The potential to mitigate global warming with no‐tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term. Glob Chang Biol 10:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Skourtos M, Tourkolias C, Kontogianni A, Damigos D, Harrison PA, Berry PM (this volume) Internalizing cross-sectoral effects into cost-effectiveness adaptation analysisGoogle Scholar
  56. Smith P (2012) Agricultural greenhouse has mitigation potential globally, in Europe and in the UK: what have we learnt in the last 20 years? Glob Chang Biol 18:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith P, Olesen JE (2010) Synergies between the mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change in agriculture. J Agric Sci 148:543–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Spatari S, Yu Z, Montalto FA (2011) Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure. Environ Pollut 159:2174–2179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stevens CJ, Quinton JN (2009) Diffuse pollution swapping in arable agricultural systems. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 39:478–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stoorvogel JJ, Antle JM, Crissman CC, Bowen W (2004) The tradeoff analysis model: integrated bio-physical and economic modeling of agricultural production systems. Agric Syst 80:43–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Synnefa A, Karlessi T, Gaitani N, Santamouris M, Assimakopoulos DN, Papakatsikas C (2011) Experimental testing of cool colored thin layer asphalt and estimation of its potential to improve the urban microclimate. Build Environ 46:38–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thiere G, Stadmark J, Weisner SEB (2011) Nitrogen retention versus methane emission: environmental benefits and risks of large-scale wetland creation. Ecol Eng 37:6–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tol RSJ (2005) Adaptation and mitigation: trade-offs in substance and methods. Environ Sci Pol 8:572–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tompkins EL, Adger WN (2004) Does adaptive management of natural resources enhance resilience to climate change? Ecol Soc 9:10Google Scholar
  65. Trnka M, Dubrovský M, Žalud Z (2004) Climate change impacts and adaptation strategies in spring barley production in the Czech Republic. Clim Chang 64:227–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tubiello FN, Donatelli M, Rosenzweig C, Stockle CO (2000) Effects of climate change and elevated CO2 on cropping systems: model predictions at two Italian locations. Eur J Agron 13:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Van Vuuren DP et al (2011) The use of scenarios as the basis for combined assessment of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Global Environ Chang 21:575–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Viguié V, Hallegatte S (2012) Trade-offs and synergies in urban climate policies. Nat Clim Chang 2:334–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. VijayaVenkataRaman S, Iniyan S, Goic R (2012) A review of climate change, mitigation and adaptation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16:878–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Walsh CL et al (2010) Assessment of climate change mitigation and adaptation in cities. Proc ICE Urban Des Plan 164:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilbanks TJ, Kates RW (1999) Global change in local places: how scale matters. Clim Chang 43:601–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wilbanks TJ, Leiby P, Perlack R, Ensminger JT, Wright SB (2007) Toward an integrated analysis of mitigation and adaptation: some preliminary findings. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 12:713–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wise S, Braden J, Ghalayini D et al (2010) Integrating valuation methods to recognize green infrastructure’s multiple benefits. Low Impact Dev. doi: 10.1061/41099(367)98 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pam M. Berry
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sally Brown
    • 2
  • Minpeng Chen
    • 3
  • Areti Kontogianni
    • 4
  • Olwen Rowlands
    • 5
  • Gillian Simpson
    • 1
  • Michalis Skourtos
    • 4
  1. 1.Environmental Change InstituteUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.University of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  3. 3.Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.University of the AegeanAegeanGreece
  5. 5.Halcrow Group LtdSwindonUK

Personalised recommendations