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Climatic Change

, Volume 126, Issue 1–2, pp 163–174 | Cite as

Northward range shifts in Korean butterflies

  • Tae-Sung Kwon
  • Cheol Min Lee
  • Sung-Soo Kim
Article

Abstract

Northward shifts due to global warming are apparent in various organisms in the Northern Hemisphere such as insects, fish, birds, and plants. However, these findings were mainly reported in Europe and North America. Therefore, such range shifts should be examined in other regions such as Asia to confirm global northward shifts in the Northern Hemisphere. In South Korea, we tested whether the distribution margins of Korean butterflies shifted northward or southward. We used occurrence data from two Korean butterfly atlases (1938-1950 and 1996-2011). The margin (northern or southern) shifts were evaluated using both latitudinal shifts of margin records (direct evaluation) and the intercept shift in the regression equation between the margin shift and the change in occurrence (intercept evaluation). Northern margins of southern species shifted northwards, whereas southern margins of northern species shifted southwards due to habitat enlargement (national reforestation in South Korea). The annual northward shift of northern margins of 10 Korean southern species was 1.6 km for 60 years, which is similar to the Korean isothermal shift (1.5 km per year).

Keywords

Northern Margin Southern Margin Butterfly Species Range Shift Open Land 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was conducted as part of a research project of the Korea Forest Research Institute (Project FE 0100-2009-01, Effect of climate change on forest ecosystem and adaptation of forest ecosystem). We sincerely thank late Mr. Joo-Myoung Seok and his sister late Prof. Joo-Seon Seok for publishing the first Korean butterfly atlas despite the harsh environment of the period. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions.

Supplementary material

10584_2014_1212_MOESM1_ESM.docx (286 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 286 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Forest EcologyKorea Forest Research InstituteDongdaemun-guRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Research Institute for East Asian Environment and BiologyGangdong-guRepublic of Korea

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