Climatic Change

, Volume 122, Issue 1–2, pp 257–269 | Cite as

Anthropogenic and natural causes of climate change

  • David I. Stern
  • Robert K. Kaufmann


We test for causality between radiative forcing and temperature using multivariate time series models and Granger causality tests that are robust to the non-stationary (trending) nature of global climate data. We find that both natural and anthropogenic forcings cause temperature change and also that temperature causes greenhouse gas concentration changes. Although the effects of greenhouse gases and volcanic forcing are robust across model specifications, we cannot detect any effect of black carbon on temperature, the effect of changes in solar irradiance is weak, and the effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may be only around half that usually attributed to them.


Black Carbon Solar Irradiance Granger Causality Granger Causality Test Ocean Heat Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Paul Burke, Robert Costanza, Zsuzsanna Csereklyei, Shuang Liu, Vid Stimac, and two anonymous referees for their useful comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crawford School of Public PolicyAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Earth and EnvironmentBoston UniversityBostonUSA

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