Climatic Change

, Volume 117, Issue 4, pp 829–841 | Cite as

Influences of external forcing changes on the summer cooling trend over East Asia

  • Bian He
  • Qing Bao
  • Jiandong Li
  • Guoxiong Wu
  • Yimin Liu
  • Xiaocong Wang
  • Zhaobo Sun


Observations indicate a surface cooling trend during the East Asian summer in recent decades, against a background of global warming. This cooling trend is re-examined using station data from 1951 to 2007, and atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations are performed to investigate the possible influence of changes in external forcing. The numerical experiments are designed to investigate the effects of four types of external forcing: greenhouse gases (GHGs), Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), ozone, and the direct effects of aerosols. Results indicate that external forcing contributes to the cooling trend over East Asia. Furthermore, GHGs, and to a lesser degree the direct effects of aerosols, are the main contributors to the cooling trend. The possible linkages between the external forcings and the cooling trend are discussed.



This study was supported by ‘973’ programs (Grant Nos. 2012CB417203, 2013CB955803, 2010CB950404), CAS Strategic Priority Research Program (Grant No. XDA05110303), the National Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41023002), and the Postgraduate Innovation Program of Jiangsu China (Grant No. N0782002054).

Supplementary material

10584_2012_592_MOESM1_ESM.docx (113 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 113 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bian He
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qing Bao
    • 2
  • Jiandong Li
    • 2
  • Guoxiong Wu
    • 2
  • Yimin Liu
    • 2
  • Xiaocong Wang
    • 2
  • Zhaobo Sun
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Atmospheric ScienceNanjing University of Information Science & TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.LASG, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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