Advertisement

Climatic Change

, Volume 114, Issue 3–4, pp 799–811 | Cite as

Observational evidence of the cooling effect of agricultural irrigation in Jilin, China

  • Xiufang Zhu
  • Shunlin Liang
  • YaoZhong Pan
Article

Abstract

China features the second largest irrigation area in the world. Several modeling studies on a global scale have shown the irrigation impact in China, but no direct observational evidence has been reported. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of irrigation on temperature in Jilin province, China, using meteorological and satellite observations. The results show that the temperature difference between highly and lightly irrigated sites is statistically significant and highly correlated to the effective irrigation area and crop sown area over the past 53 years. The magnitude of the difference in maximum air temperature was almost twice that of the difference in minimum air temperature. The linear regression coefficient of the time series difference in maximum air temperature was more than three times that of the minimum air temperature. Moreover, both meteorological and satellite observations show that the temperature difference is amplified during drier years. The difference in the magnitude of daytime land surface temperature (LST), between areas with irrigation percentages of more than 50 and less than 50, is as high as 2.7 K during the driest year. Overall, this study may provide evidence that an irrigation cooling effect exists in China.

Keywords

Standardize Precipitation Index Land Surface Temperature Jilin Province National Land Cover Dataset International Water Management Institute 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

CSA

Crop sown area

DTmax

The growing season mean maximum temperatures difference between HIP and LIP (HIP minus LIP)

DTmean

The growing season mean minimum temperatures difference between HIP and LIP (HIP minus LIP)

DTmin

The growing season average mean temperatures difference between HIP and LIP (HIP minus LIP)

DW

Durbin-Watson method

EC

Energy consumption

EIA

Effective irrigation area

FAO map

The global irrigation map derived by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO MAP)

GIAM

The global irrigated area map generated by IWMI

GMRCA

The global map of rainfed cropland areas generated by IWMI

HIP

Observation sites with a relatively high irrigation percentage

IWMI

The International Water Management Institute

LIP

Observation sites with a relatively low irrigation percentage

LST

Land surface temperature

MODIS

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MYD11C3

MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05 Deg CMG products

NLCD

National Land Cover Dataset of China

SCE

Standard coal equivalents

SPI

The standard precipitation index

SPI12

The standard precipitation index for a 12 month rainfall total

UR

urbanization ratio

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study is partially funded by NASA and NOAA grants. The leading author is also funded by the Chinese Scholarship Program. We also would like to thank the reviewers for their valuable comments.

References

  1. Adegoke JO, Pielke RA, Eastman J, Mahmood R, Hubbard KG (2003) Impact of irrigation on midsummer surface fluxes and temperature under dry synoptic conditions: a regional atmospheric model study of the U.S. high plains. Mon Weather Rev 131:556–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Biggs TW, Scott CA, Gaur A, Venot JP, Chase T, Lee E (2008) Impacts of irrigation and anthropogenic aerosols on the water balance, heat fluxes, and surface temperature in a river basin. Water Resour Res 44:W12415. doi: 10.1029/2008wr006847 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonfils C, Lobell D (2007) Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13582–13587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boucher O, Myhre G, Myhre A (2004) Direct human influence of irrigation on atmospheric water vapour and climate. Clim Dyn 22:597–603. doi: 10.1007/s00382-004-0402-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Rosnay P, Polcher J, Laval K, Sabre M (2003) Integrated parameterization of irrigation in the land surface model ORCHIDEE. Validation over Indian Peninsula. Geophysical Research Letters 30. 1986 doi:10.1029/2003gl018024
  6. Douglas EM, Niyogi D, Frolking S, Yeluripati JB, Pielke RA, Niyogi N, Vorosmarty CJ, Mohanty UC (2006) Changes in moisture and energy fluxes due to agricultural land use and irrigation in the Indian Monsoon Belt. Geophys Res Lett 33:L14403. doi: 10.1029/2006gl026550 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Douglas EM, Beltran-Przekurat A, Niyogi D, Pielke RA, Vorosmarty CJ (2009) The impact of agricultural intensification and irrigation on land-atmosphere interactions and Indian monsoon precipitation - A mesoscale modeling perspective. Glob Planet Chang 67:117–128. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.12.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Durbin J, Watson G (1950) Testing for Serial Correlation in Least Squares Regression, I. Bimoetrika 37Google Scholar
  9. Gordon LJ, Steffen W, Jonsson BF, Folke C, Falkenmark M, Johannessen A (2005) Human modification of global water vapor flows from the land surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7612–7617. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0500208102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Haddeland I, Lettenmaier DP, Skaugen T (2006) Effects of irrigation on the water and energy balances of the Colorado and Mekong river basins. J Hydrol 324:210–223. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.09.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kalnay E, Cai M (2003) Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature 423:528–531. doi: 10.1038/nature01675 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kanamaru H, Kanamitsu M (2008) Model diagnosis of nighttime minimum temperature warming during summer due to irrigation in the California Central Valley. J Hydrometeorol 9:1061–1072. doi: 10.1175/2008jhm967.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kueppers LM, Snyder MA, Sloan LC (2007) Irrigation cooling effect: regional climate forcing by land-use change. Geophys Res Lett 34:L03703. doi: 10.1029/2006gl028679 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kueppers LM, Snyder MA, Sloan LC, Cayan D, Jin J, Kanamaru H, Kanamitsu M, Miller NL, Tyree M, Due H, Weare B (2008) Seasonal temperature responses to land-use change in the western United States. Glob Planet Chang 60:250–264. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li QS, Willardson LS, Deng W, Li XJ, Liu CJ (2005) Crop water deficit estimation and irrigation scheduling in western Jilin province, Northeast China. Agric Water Manag 71:47–60. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2004.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu JY, Liu ML, Tian HQ, Zhuang DF, Zhang ZX, Zhang W, Tang XM, Deng XZ (2005) Spatial and temporal patterns of China’s cropland during 1990–2000: an analysis based on Landsat TM data. Remote Sens Environ 98:442–456. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2005.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lobell DB, Bonfils C (2008) The effect of irrigation on regional temperatures: a spatial and temporal analysis of trends in California, 1934–2002. J Clim 21:2063–2071. doi: 10.1175/2007jcli1755.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lobell DB, Bonfils CJ, Kueppers LM, Snyder MA (2008) Irrigation cooling effect on temperature and heat index extremes. Geophys Res Lett 35:L09705. doi: 0.1029/2008gl034145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lobell D, Bala G, Mirin A, Phillips T, Maxwell R, Rotman D (2009) Regional differences in the influence of irrigation on climate. J Clim 22:2248–2255. doi: 10.1175/2008jcli2703.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mahmood R, Foster SA, Keeling T, Hubbard KG, Carlson C, Leeper R (2006) Impacts of irrigation on 20th century temperature in the northern Great Plains. Glob Planet Chang 54:1–18. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Menon S, Hansen J, Nazarenko L, Luo YF (2002) Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India. Science 297:2250–2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. National Bureau of statistics of China (2009) China Statistical Yearbook 2008. China Statistics Press, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  23. Ozdogan M, Rodell M, Beaudoing HK, Toll DL (2010) Simulating the effects of irrigation over the United States in a land surface model based on satellite-derived agricultural data. J Hydrometeorol 11:171–184. doi: 10.1175/2009jhm1116.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Puma MJ, Cook BI (2010) Effects of irrigation on global climate during the 20th century. J Geophys Res-Atmos 115:D16120. doi: 10.1029/2010jd014122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sacks WJ, Cook BI, Buenning N, Levis S, Helkowski JH (2009) Effects of global irrigation on the near-surface climate. Clim Dyn 33:159–175. doi: 10.1007/s00382-008-0445-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Siebert S, Doll P, Hoogeveen J, Faures JM, Frenken K, Feick S (2005) Development and validation of the global map of irrigation areas. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 9:535–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhou LM, Dickinson RE, Tian YH, Fang JY, Li QX, Kaufmann RK, Tucker CJ, Myneni RB (2004) Evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9540–9544. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0400357101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Department of GeographyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.The college of Resources Science and TechnologyBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations