Advertisement

Climatic Change

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 23–33 | Cite as

Hidden climate change – urban meteorology and the scales of real weather

  • Vladimir JankovićEmail author
  • Michael Hebbert
Article

Abstract

This paper discusses the scale at which the weather is experienced and modified by human activities in urban environment. The climates of built-up areas differ from their non-urban counterparts in many aspect: wind-flows, radiation, humidity, precipitation and air quality all change in the presence of human settlement, transforming each city into a singularity within its regional weather system. Yet this pervasive category of anthropogenic climate change has always tended to be hidden and difficult to discern. The paper first describes the sequence of discovery of the urban heat island since the early nineteenth century, and the emergence and consolidation of a scientific field devoted to the climatology of cities. This is followed by a discussion of various attempts to apply knowledge of climatic factors to the design and management of settlement. We find that real-world application of urban climatology has met with limited success. However, the conclusion suggests that global climate change gives a new visibility and practical relevance to urban-scale climate science.

Keywords

Urban Heat Island Street Canyon Climate Science World Meteorological Organization Urban Climate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Economic and Social Research Council which supported the http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/architecture/research/csud/index.htm project ‘Climate Science and Urban Design’ under Grant RES-062-23-2134.

References

  1. Aibar E, Bijker WE (1997) Constructing a city: the cedra plan for the extension of Barcelona. Sci Tech Hum Val 22:3–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson S (1978) On streets. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnfield JA (2003) Review: two decades of urban climate research. Int J Climatol 23:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashworth JR (1929) ‘The influence of smoke and hot gases from factory chimneys on rainfall’. QJRMS 55:34–350Google Scholar
  5. Banham R (1969) Architecture of the well-tempered environment. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlag A and Kuttler W (1990/1) ‘The significance of country breezes for urban planning’. Energy and Buildings. Energy and Climate 15–6: 291–7Google Scholar
  7. Barles S (1999) La vile délétère: médecins at ingénieurs dans l’espace urbain XVIIIe-XIXe siècle. Champ Vallon, SeysselGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumueller J, Reuter U (1995) ‘Urban climate and urban planning’. In: Höschele K et al (eds) Klimaanalyse für die Stadtplanung. Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe, pp 13–16Google Scholar
  9. Bicknell J, Dodman D, Satterthwaite D (eds) (2009) Adapting cities to climate change. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Bitan A (ed) (1984) Applied climatology and its contribution to planning and building. Elsevier Sequoia, LausanneGoogle Scholar
  11. Blakeley E (2007) Urban planning for climate change WP 07 EB1 Cambridge Ma: Lincoln Institute for Land PolicyGoogle Scholar
  12. Bosselmann P (1998) Representation of places: reality and realism in city design. Univ of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyer C (1994) The city of collective memory: its historical imaginary and architectural entertainments Cambridge MA: MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  14. Buckingham JS (1849) National evils and practical remedies: with the plan of a model town. P. Jackson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Bulkeley H, Betsill M (2003) Cities and climate change: urban sustainability and global environmental governance. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Caldwell C (1798) A semi-annual oration, on the origins of pestilential diseases. Thoas and Samuel F. bradford, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Calthrope P (2011) Urbanism in the age of climate change Island Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  18. Chandler T (1976) Urban climatology and its relevance to urban design WMO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  19. Changnon S (2007) The past and future of climate-related services in the United States. J Serv Climatol 1:1–6Google Scholar
  20. Collins GR, Collins CC (1986) Camillo Sitte: the birth of modern city planning. Rizzoli, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Conrads U (ed) (1970) Programmes and manifestoes on 20th-century architecture. Lund Humphries, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Currie W (1792) An historical account of the climates and diseases of America. T. Dobson, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  23. Egli E (1951) Die neue Stadt in Landschaft und Klima. Erlenbach, RentschGoogle Scholar
  24. Eliasson I (2000) The use of climate knowledge in urban planning. Landsc Urban Plann 48:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Erell E, Pearlmutter D, Williamson T (2011) Urban microclimate designing the spaces between buildings. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Fein A (ed) (1967) Landscape into cityscape: Frederic law Olmsted’s plans for a greater New York city. Cornell University Press, Ithaca NYGoogle Scholar
  27. Fels E (1954) Der wirtschaftende Mensch als Gestalter der Erde Stuttgart: FranchGoogle Scholar
  28. Finer SE (1952) The life and times of Sir Edwin Chadwick. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Geiger R (1950) The climate near the ground. Cambridge University Press, HarvardGoogle Scholar
  30. Geiger R, Aron R, Todhunter P (2009) The climate near the ground. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham MDGoogle Scholar
  31. Graham S, Marvin S (2001) Splintering urbanism. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hebbert M (2009) Three Ps of placemaking for climate change. Town Plan Rev 80(4):359–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hilbersheimer L (1944) The new city: principles of planning. Paul Theobald, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  34. Hitchings R (2011) Coping with the immediate experience of climate: regional variations and indoor trajectories. WIRES Clim Chang 2:170–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hobbs J (1980) Applied climatology: a study of atmospheric resources. Butterworth, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. Howard L (1833) The climate of London: deduced from meteorological observations made on the metropolis and at various places around it. Harvey and Garton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Janković V (2010) Confronting the climate: British airs and the making of environmental medicine. Palgrave, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Kratzer A (1937) Das Stadtklima. Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, MunichGoogle Scholar
  39. Kratzer A (1956) The Climate of Cities American Meteorological Society, BostonGoogle Scholar
  40. Landsberg H (1956) The climate of towns. In: Thomas WL (ed) Man’s role in changing the face of the earth. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  41. Landsberg H (1981) The urban climate. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Levine M, Ürge-Vorsatz D, Levine M, Ürge-Vorsatz D, Blok K, Geng L, Harvey D, Lang S (2007) ‘Climate change mitigation in the buildings sector’ Chapter 7. In: Fourth Assessment Report AP4. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  43. Marsh GP (1882) The earth as modified by human action. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Meyer W (1991) Urban heat island and urban health. Prof Geogr 43(1):38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mills G (2006) Progress towards sustainable settlement: a role for urban climatology. Theor Appl Climatol 84:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Oke T (1976) ‘The distinction between canopy and urban boundary-layer heat islands. Atmosphere 14:268–277Google Scholar
  47. Olgyay V (1963) Design with climate: bioclimatic approach to architectural regionalism. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  48. Parr AE (1968) Remarks on climate and environmental design. In: Sewell X et al (eds) Human dimensions of the atmosphere. U.S. Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  49. Petersen F (1979) The impact of sanitary reform upon American urban planning. J Soc Hist 13:84–89Google Scholar
  50. Rosenzweig C, Solecki WD, Hammer SA, Mehrotra S (eds) (2011) Climate change and cities. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Santamouris M (2001) Energy and climate in the urban built environment. James & James, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Shaw R, Colley M, Connell R (2007) Climate change adaptation by design: a guide to sustainable communities. Town and Country Planning Association, LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Short T (1767) A comparative history of the increase and decrease of mankind in England, and several countries abroad, according to the different soils, situations, business of life, use of the non-naturals. W. Nicoll, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith RA (1872) Air and rain. Longmans, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Spirn AW (1984) The granite garden. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Taylor E (1950) ‘Climate in relation to planning’ ch2. In: Tyrwhitt J (ed) Town and country planning textbook. the Architectural Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Terjung W (1976) Climatology for geographers. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 66:199–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Webster N (1799) A brief history of epidemic and pestilential diseases. Hudson and Goodwin, HartfordGoogle Scholar
  59. Wexler H (1948) ‘Meteorology and air pollution,’ Report of the committee on air pollution, American Journal for Health Promotion: 88–91Google Scholar
  60. WHO (1961) Report of the expert committee on public health aspects of housing (WHO Technical Report Series #225). World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  61. Worpole K (2000) Here comes the sun. Reaktion Books, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for the History of Science Technology & MedicineUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Manchester Architecture Research CentreUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations