Advertisement

Climatic Change

, Volume 111, Issue 3–4, pp 775–800 | Cite as

Wintertime climatic trends in the western Himalayas

  • A. P. DimriEmail author
  • S. K. Dash
Article

Abstract

Northern Indian rivers are primarily fed by wintertime (December, January, February—DJF) precipitation, in the form of snow—yielded by eastward moving synoptic weather systems called Western Disturbances (WDs), over the western Himalayas (WH). This accumulated snow melts during ablation period. In the context of today’s warming atmosphere, it is imperative to study the changes in the temperature and precipitation patterns over the WH to assess the impact of global warming on climatic conditions of the region. Keeping that in mind, observational analysis of temperature and precipitation fields is planned. In the present study various climatic indices are analyzed based on wintertime (DJF) data of 30 years (1975–2006) obtained from the Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE), India. Results indicate enhancement in the surface air temperature across the WH. Percent number of warm (cold) days have increased (decreased) during 1975–2006 over the WH. Further analysis of precipitation reveals slightly decreasing but inconsistent trends.

Keywords

Precipitation Index Percentage Number Heavy Precipitation Event Cold Night Warm Night 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alexander LV et al (2006) Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J Geophys Res 111:D05109. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beniston M (2003) Climatic change in mountainous regions: a review of possible impacts. Clim Change 59:5–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beniston M, Diaz FD, Bradley RS (1997) Climatic change at high elevation sited: an overview. Clim Change 36:233–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown TB, Barry RG, Doesken NJ (1992) An exploratory study of temperature trends for Colorado paired mountain−high plains stations. American Meteorological Soc. Sixth conference on Mountain meteorology, Portland, OR, pp 181–184Google Scholar
  5. Carter GM (1986) Moving towards a more responsive statistical guidance system. 11th conf. on Weather forecasting and analysis. Kansas City, MO, Amer. Met. Soc. 39–45Google Scholar
  6. Dash SK, Hunt JCR (2007) Variability of climatic change in India. Curr Sci 93:782–788Google Scholar
  7. Dash SK, Jenamani RK, Kalsi SR, Panda SK (2007) Some evidence of climatic change in twentieth century India. Clim Chang 85:299–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dash SK, Kulkarni MA, Mohanty UC, Prasad K (2009) Changes in the characteristics of rain events in India. J Geophys Res 114. doi: 10.1029/2008JD010572
  9. David GV, Gareth JM, Connolley WM, Parkisnson C, Mulavaney R, Hodgson DA, King JC, Pudsey CJ, Turner J (2003) Recent rapid regional climatic warming on the Antarctic Pensisula. Clim Change 60:243–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diaz HF, Bradley RS (1997) Temperature variations during the last century in high elevation sites. Clim Change 36:253–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dickinson RE, Henderson-Sellers A, Kennedy PJ (1993) Biosphers-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) version 1e as copled to the NCAR community climate model, NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-387 + STR, 72 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Dimri AP (2004) Impact of horizontal model resolution and orography on the simulation of a western disturbance and its associated precipitation. Meteorol Appl 11(2):115–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dimri AP (2007a) A study of mean winter circulation characteristics and energetics over Southeastern Asia. PAGEOPH 164(5):1081–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dimri AP (2007b) The transport of mass, heat and moisture over Western Himalayas during winter season. Theor Appl Climatol 90(1–2):49–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dimri AP (2009) Impact of subgrid scale scheme on topography and landuse for betterregional scale simulation of meteorological variables over Western Himalayas. Clim Dyn 32:565–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dimri AP, Mohanty UC (2007) Location specific prediction of maximum and minimum temperature over Western Himalayas. Meteorol Appl 14(1):79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dimri AP, Mohanty UC (2009) Simulation of mesoscale features associated with intense western disturbances over western Himalayas. Meteorol Appl 16:289–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Easterling DR, Alexander LV, Mokssit A, Deemmerman V (2003) CCI/CLIVAR workshop to develop priority climate indices. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc 84:1403–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goswami BN, Venugopal V, Sengupta D, Madhusoodanan MS, Xavier P (2006) Increasing trends of extreme rain events over India in a warming environment. Science 134:1442–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Groisman PY, Sun B, Vose RS, Lawrimore JH, Whitfield PH, Forland E, Hanssen-Bauer I, Serreze MC, Razuvaev VN, Alekseev GV (2003) Contempary climate change in high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere: daily resolution. In: Proc of the 14th symposium on global change and climate variations, 9–13 Feb 2003, long Beach, California. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 10 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Haylock MR et al (2006) Trends in total and extreme South America rainfall 1960–2000 and links with sea surface temperature. J Clim 19(8):1490–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hennessy KJ, Suppiah R, Page CM (1999) Australian rainfall changes. 1910–1995. Aust Meteorol Mag 48:1–13Google Scholar
  23. Hoaglin DC, Mosteller F, Tukey JW (1983) Understanding robust and exploratory data analysis, WileyGoogle Scholar
  24. IPCC (2007) Fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate changeGoogle Scholar
  25. Klein-Tank AMG, Konnen GP (2003) Trends indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946–99. J Clim 16:3665–3680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klein-Tank AMG et al (2006) Changes in daily temperature and precipitation extremes in central and south Asia. J Geophys Res 111:D16105. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kothawale DR, Rupa Kumar K (2005) On the recent changes in surface temperature trends over India. Geophys Res Lett 32:L18714. doi: 10.1029/2005GL023528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kriplani RH, Inamdar S, Sontakke NA (1996) Rainfall variability over Bangladesh and Nepal: comparison and connections with features over India. Int J Climatol 16:689–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kriplani RH, Kulkarni A, Sabade SS (2003) Western Himalayan snow cover and Indian monsoon rainfall: A re-examination with INSAT and NCEP/NCAR data. Theor Appl Climatol 74:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li C, Tang M (1986) Changes of air temperature of Qunghai-Xizang plateau and its neighborhood in the past 30 years. Plateau Meteorol 284:2156–2159Google Scholar
  31. Liu XN, Sun AJ (1995) An inhomogeneity test study of annual precipitation series (in Chinese with English Abstract). Meteor Mon 21:3–6Google Scholar
  32. Pant GB, Borgaonkar HP (1984) Climate of the hill regions of Uttar Pradesh. Himal Res Dev 3:13–20Google Scholar
  33. Peterson TC, Manton MJ (2008) Monitoring changes in climate extremes−A tale of international collaboration. Bull. Amer. Meteo. Soc. 1266–1270Google Scholar
  34. Peterson TC, Taylor MA, Demeritte R, Duncombe DL, Burton S, Thompson F, Porter A, Mercedes M, Villegas E, File RS, Klein Tank A, Martis A, Warner R, Joyette A, Mills W, Alexander L, Gleason B (2002) Recent Changes in climate extremes in the Caribbean region. J Geophys Res 107(D21):4601. doi: 1029/2002JD002251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Plummer N, Salinger MJ, Nicholls N, Suppiah R, Hennessy K, Leighton RM, Trewin B, Page CM, Lough JM (1999) Changes in climate extremes over the Australian region and New Zealand during the twentieth century. Clim Change 42:183–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Press WH, Flannery BP, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling WT (1986) Numerical recipes: The art of scientific computing. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  37. Qian W, Lin X (2004) Regional trends in recent temperature indices in China. Clim Res 27:119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rebetez M (2004) Summer 2003 maximum and minimum daily temperature over a 3,300 m altitudinal range in the Alps. Clim Res 27:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Seko K, Takahashi S (1991) Characteristics of winter precipitation and its effects on glaciers in Nepal Himalaya. Bull Glacier Res 9:9–16Google Scholar
  40. Thompson LG, Yao T, Thompson EM, Davis ME, Handerson KA, Lin PN (2000) A high resolution millennial record of the South Asian monsoon from Himalayan ice cores. Science 289:16–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Villaba R, Lara A, Boninsegna JA, Masiokas M, Delgado S, Aravena JC, Roig FA, Schmelter A, Wolodarsky A, Ripalta A (2003) Large scale temporal changes across the southern Andes: 20th century variations in the context of the past 400 years. Clim Change 59:177–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vincent LA (1998) A technique for the identification of inhomogeneities in Canadian temperature series. J Clim 11:1094–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vincent LA (2005) Observed trends in indices of daily temperature extremes in South America 1960–2000. J Clim 18:5011–5023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vuille M, Bradley RS, Werner M, Keimig F (2003) 20th century climate change in the tropical Andes: observations and model results. Clim Change 59:75–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wibig J, Glowicki B (2002) Trends in minimum and maximum temperature in Poland. Clim Res 20:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wilks DS (1995) Statistical methods in the atmospheric sciences. Acedemic Press, pp 467Google Scholar
  47. Yadav RR, Park W-K, Singh J, Dubey B (2004) Do the western Himalayas defy global warming? Geophys Res Lett 31:L17201. doi: 10.1029/2004GL020201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhai P-M, Ren F-M (1999) On change of China’s maximum and minimum temperatures in 1951–1990. Acta Meteor Sin 13(2):278–290Google Scholar
  49. Zhai P, Zhang X, Wan H, Pan X (2005) Trends in total precipitation and frequency of daily precipitation extremes over China. J Clim 18:1096–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang X, Vincent LA, Hogg WD, Niitsoo A (2000) Temperature and precipitation trends in Canada during the 20th centaury. Atmosphere-Ocean 38:395–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of TechnologyNewDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations