Climatic Change

, Volume 106, Issue 2, pp 327–336 | Cite as

A systematic review of observed climate change adaptation in developed nations

A letter
  • James D. FordEmail author
  • Lea Berrang-Ford
  • Jaclyn Paterson
Open Access


We develop and apply a systematic mixed-methods literature review methodology to identify and characterize how climate change adaptation is taking place in developed nations. We find limited evidence of adaptation action. Where interventions are being implemented and reported on, they are typically in sectors that are sensitive to climate impacts, are most common at the municipal level, facilitated by higher-level government interventions, with responses typically institutional in nature. There is negligible description of adaptation taking place with respect to vulnerable groups, with reporting unequal by region and sector. The methodology offers important insights for meta-analyses in climate change scholarship and can be used for monitoring progress in adaptation over time.


Climate Change Climate Change Adaptation Develop Nation Adaptation Action Systematic Review Methodology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

10584_2011_45_MOESM1_ESM.doc (694 kb)
Supplementary Data (DOC 693 KB)


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • James D. Ford
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lea Berrang-Ford
    • 1
  • Jaclyn Paterson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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