Advertisement

Climatic Change

, Volume 110, Issue 1–2, pp 5–29 | Cite as

Climate change impacts on international seaports: knowledge, perceptions, and planning efforts among port administrators

  • Austin BeckerEmail author
  • Satoshi Inoue
  • Martin Fischer
  • Ben Schwegler
Article

Abstract

Seaports are located in vulnerable areas to climate change impacts: on coasts susceptible to sea-level rise and storms or at mouths of rivers susceptible to flooding. They serve a vital function within the local, regional, and global economy. Their locations in the heart of sensitive estuarine environments make it an imperative to minimize the impacts of natural hazards. Climate impacts, like a projected SLR of .6 m to 2 m and doubling of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes by 2100, will result in more extreme events at many seaports. To assess the current state of knowledge on this issue, we surveyed port authorities from around the world about how administrators felt climate change might impact their operations, what sea-level change would create operational problems, and how they planned to adapt to new environmental conditions. The planned rapid expansion of ports reported by the survey respondents indicates that adaptation measures should be considered as ports construct new infrastructure that may still be in use at the end of the century. Respondents agreed that the ports community needs to address this issue and most felt relatively uninformed about potential climate impacts. Although most ports felt that SLR would not be an issue at their port this century, sea-level rise was nevertheless an issue of great concern. Our results suggest opportunities for the scientific community to engage with port practitioners to prepare proactively for climate change impacts on this sector.

Keywords

Climate Change Tropical Cyclone Climate Change Impact United States Environmental Protection Agency Climate Change Adaptation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alreck PL, Settle RB (1995) The survey research handbook. Irwin ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  2. American Association of Port Authorities (2008) Climate Change Workshop. Climate Change Workshop. American Association of Port Authorities, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  3. American Association of Port Authorities (2010) Harbors, Navigation and Environment Seminar and GreenPort Americas 2010—Programs and Events. Harbors, Navigation and Environment Seminar and GreenPort Americas 2010. Charlseton, SCGoogle Scholar
  4. Bender MA et al (2010) Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic Hurricanes. Science 327(5964):454–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernstein L, Pachauri RK, Reisinger A (2008) Climate change 2007: synthesis report (IPCC)Google Scholar
  6. Bichou K, Gray R (2005) A critical review of conventional terminology for classifying seaports. Transp Res Part A 39(1):75–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bierling D, Lorented P (2008) Ports and climate change: perceptions and planning practice, 2008 Texas Ports and Waterways Conference. Texas Transportation Institute, GalvestonGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooks MR (2004) The governance structure of ports. Review of Network Economics 3(2):168–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. California State Lands Commission (2009) A report on sea level rise preparedness. California State Lands CommissionGoogle Scholar
  10. Dasgupta S et al (2008) The impact of sea level rise on developing countries: a comparative analysis. J Clim Change 93(3–4):379–388Google Scholar
  11. Esteban M, Webersick C, Shibayama T (2009) Estimation of the economic costs of non adapting Japanese port infrastructure to a potential increase in tropical cyclone intensity. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6(32):322003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2008) Hurricane ike impact report. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Geneva Association (2009) The insurance industry and climate change—contribution to the global debate’. In: Editor-in-Chief: Patrick M. Liedtke Editorial Managers: Susanne Le Roux and Françoise Jaffré (eds) The Geneva Reports—Risk and Insurance Research No. 2. (The Geneva Association (The International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics))Google Scholar
  14. Hallegate S, Patmore N, Mestre O, Dumas P, Corfee-Morlot J, Herwieger C, Muir Wood R (2008) Assessing climate change impacts, sea level rise, and storm surge risk in port cities: a case study on Copenhagen. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  15. Hallegatte S (2007) The use of synthetic hurricane tracks in risk analysis and climate change damage assessment. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 46(11):1956–1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hallegatte S (2008) An adaptive regional input–output model and its application to the assessment of the economic cost of Katrina. Risk anal 28(3):779–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoyle BS, Knowles RD (1992) Modern transport geography. Belhaven Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Contribution of working group II to the Fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  19. International Association of Ports and Harbors ’NGO Consultative Status // IAPH’. http://www.iaphworldports.org/about/ngo.html. Accessed 12/15/2010
  20. International Maritime Organization (IMO) ’International Shipping and World Trade Facts and Figures’. http://www.imo.org/KnowledgeCentre/ShippingFactsAndNews/TheRoleandImportanceofInternationalShipping/Pages/TheRoleAndImportanceOfInternationalShipping.aspx. Accessed 02/10/2009
  21. Joint Legislative Committee on Performance Evaluation and Expenditure Review (PEER) (2006) The impact of hurricane Katrina on Mississippi’s Commercial public ports and opportunities for expansion of the ports. Mississippi Legislature, JacksonGoogle Scholar
  22. Karl T, Melillo J, Peterson T (eds.) (2009) Global climate change impacts in the United States. U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)Google Scholar
  23. Leiserowitz A, Maibach E, Roser-Renauf C (2008) Six Americas: an audience segmentation. George Mason University Center for Climate Change CommunicationGoogle Scholar
  24. Mearns LO et al (1999) Comparison of climate change scenarios generated from regional climate model experiments and statistical downscaling. J Geophys Res 104(D6):6603–6621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moser SC, Tribbia J (2006) Vulnerability to inundation and climate change impacts in California: Coastal managers’ attitudes and perceptions. Mar Technol Soc J 40(4):35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moser H, Hawkes PJ, Arntsen ØA, Gaufres P, Mai FS, Pauli G, White KD (2008) ’Envicom—Task Group 3: waterborne transport, ports and waterways: a review of climate change drivers, impacts, responses and mitigation. International Navigation Association (PIANC)Google Scholar
  27. National Research Council (NRC) (2009) Informing decisions in a changing climate. Panel on Strategies and Methods for Climate-related Decision Support. (Washington, DC: Committee on the Human Dimensions for Global Change, Division of Behavioral Sciences and Education), Executive Summary, p 1Google Scholar
  28. Nicholls R, Hanson S, Herweijer C, Patmore N, Hallegatte S, Corfee-Morlot J, Chateau J, Muir-Wood R (2007) Ranking port cities with high exposure and vulnerability to climate extremes: exposure estimates. OECD Environment Working Paper 1, ENV/WKP(2007)1. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  29. Pielke RA (2007) Future economic damage from tropical cyclones: sensitivities to societal and climate changes. Philos Trans R Soc A 1–13Google Scholar
  30. Rahmstorf S (2007) A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 315 (5810):368–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Santella N, Steinberg LJ, Sengul H (2010) Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with hurricane Katrina. Risk Anal 30(4):635–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Simpson MC, Scott D, Harrison M, Silver N, O’Keeffe E, Sim R, Harrison S, Taylor M, Lizcano G, Rutty M, Stager H, Oldham J, Wilson M, New M, Clarke J, Day OJ, Fields N, Georges J, Waithe R, McSharry P (2010) Quantification and magnitude of losses and damages resulting from the impacts of climate change: modelling the transformational impacts and costs of sea level rise in the Caribbean (Summary Document). Barbados, West IndiesGoogle Scholar
  33. Stern NH, Britain G (2006) Stern review: the economics of climate change. 30: HM treasury LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Transporation Institute (2008) Industry Profile. Transportation Institute. http://www.trans-inst.org/industry-profiles.html. Accessed March 28, 2010
  35. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2008) ’Maritime transport and the climate change challenge. Note by the UNCTAD secretariat. Geneva, United NationsGoogle Scholar
  36. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (1985) Port development: a handbook for planners in developing countries. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. United Nations Statistics Division ’Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions’, (updated 15 Apr. 2009). http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm. Accessed 03/15/2009
  38. United States Commission on Ocean Policy (USCOP) (2004) An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century. Final Report’. United States Commission on Ocean Policy, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  39. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2008) Planning for climate change impacts at U.S. Ports. White Paper prepared by ICF International for the USEPA’Google Scholar
  40. Vermeer M, Rahmstorf S (2009) Global sea level linked to global temperature. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(51):21527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. World Bank (2009) The costs to developing countries of adapting to climate change: new methods and estimates, Consultation Draft. The Global Report of the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change StudyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Austin Becker
    • 1
    Email author
  • Satoshi Inoue
    • 2
  • Martin Fischer
    • 3
  • Ben Schwegler
    • 4
  1. 1.Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and ResourcesStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.National Graduate Institute for Policy StudiesTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Center for Integrated Facility Engineering, Civil and Environmental EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  4. 4.Walt Disney Imagineering R&D and Consulting Professor at Stanford UniversityGlendaleUSA

Personalised recommendations