Climatic Change

, Volume 109, Issue 3–4, pp 695–718 | Cite as

Modelling the potential impact of global warming on Ips typographus voltinism and reproductive diapause

  • Anna Maria Jönsson
  • Susanne Harding
  • Paal Krokene
  • Holger Lange
  • Åke Lindelöw
  • Bjørn Økland
  • Hans Peter Ravn
  • Leif Martin Schroeder


The Eurasian spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, is one of the major forest insect pests in Europe, capable of mass-attacking and killing mature Norway spruce trees. The initiation and development of a new generation are strongly controlled by temperature and a warmer climate may affect the number of generations that is produced per year and hence the outbreak dynamics. Experimental knowledge regarding reproductive diapause adaptations is, however, too sparse for large-scale assessments of future trends. We developed a model description of diapause induction, and used gridded observational temperature data to evaluate multiple combinations of day length and temperature thresholds to find the model parameterisation most coherent with I. typographus monitoring data from Scandinavia. The selected model parameterisation is supported by European literature data, though further experimental studies are required to analyse population specific adaptations and capacity for adjustments to changing climate conditions. Implementing the model description of reproductive diapause in a temperature driven model of bark beetle phenology (swarming activity and development from egg to mature bark beetle), enabled us to assess the length of the late summer swarming period that is a critical determinant of the risk of forest damage. By using regional climate model data we show that higher temperatures can result in increased frequency and length of late summer swarming events, producing a second generation in southern Scandinavia and a third generation in lowland parts of central Europe. Reproductive diapause will not prevent the occurrence of an additional generation per year, but the day length cues may restrict the length of the late summer swarming period.


Regional Climate Model Temperature Threshold Bark Beetle Pheromone Trap Glob Chang Biol 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Maria Jönsson
    • 1
  • Susanne Harding
    • 2
  • Paal Krokene
    • 3
  • Holger Lange
    • 3
  • Åke Lindelöw
    • 4
  • Bjørn Økland
    • 3
  • Hans Peter Ravn
    • 5
  • Leif Martin Schroeder
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Division of Physical Geography and Ecosystem AnalysisLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenFrederiksberg C.Denmark
  3. 3.Norwegian Forest and Landscape InstituteÅsNorway
  4. 4.Department of EcologySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  5. 5.Forest & Landscape, Faculty of Life SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenFrederiksberg C.Denmark

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