Climatic Change

, Volume 105, Issue 1–2, pp 179–206

Glacier recession and human vulnerability in the Yanamarey watershed of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

  • Jeffrey T. Bury
  • Bryan G. Mark
  • Jeffrey M. McKenzie
  • Adam French
  • Michel Baraer
  • Kyung In Huh
  • Marco Alfonso Zapata Luyo
  • Ricardo Jesús Gómez López
Open Access
Article

Abstract

Glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, are undergoing rapid retreat, in large part due to climate change. These changes are significantly altering water availability in the region and pose critical risks to local populations that are highly dependent on these resources for livelihoods. We examine these issues through an interdisciplinary and linked evaluation of hydrological change and livelihood vulnerability in the Yanamarey watershed. Physical observations of the Yanamarey glacier show acceleration in frontal retreat at a rate of 8 m decade − 1 since 1970, accompanied by total volume loss on the order of 0.022 km3. Hydrological and hydrochemical analyses document a possible transformation of stream flow over the past decade as the seasonal storage capacity of the glacier has degraded. Recent stream discharge measurements from the proglacial lake below the glacier are more coincident with the highly variable seasonal precipitation than they were during the 1998–1999 hydrological year. Local household perceptions of glacier recession and seasonal hydrological variability agree with this trend, which is increasing human vulnerability in the watershed. Household case-study survey results demonstrate that shifting water resources, increasing weather extremes and climate-related threats to tourism are all new vectors of vulnerability for household livelihoods.

Keywords

Climate change Glacier recession Hydrology Vulnerability Peru Cordillera Blanca 

References

  1. Adger W (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Change 16:268–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilar E, Peterson TC, Ramírez Obando P, Frutos R, Retana JA, Solera M, Soley J, Gonzalez Garcia I, Araujo RM, Rosa Santos A (2005) Changes in precipitation and temperature extremes in Central America and northern South America, 1961–2003. J Geophys Res 110:D23107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcamo J, Dronin N, Endejan M, Golubev G, Kirilenko A (2007) A new assessment of climate change impacts on food production shortfalls and water availability in Russia. Glob Environ Change 17:429–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ames A (1998) A documentation of glacier tongue variations and lake developments in the Cordillera Blanca. Z Gletsch kd Glazialgeol 34:1–26Google Scholar
  5. Ames A, Dolores S, Valverde A, Evangelista P, Javier D, Gavnini W, Zuniga J, Gómez V (1989) Glacier inventory of Peru, part 1. Hidrandina, SA, Huaraz, p 105Google Scholar
  6. Avissar R, Werth D (2005) Global hydroclimatological teleconnections resulting from tropical deforestation. J Hydrometeorol 6:134–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baraer M, McKenzie JM, Mark B, Bury J (2008) Climate change related evolution of water resources in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. The Andes: challenge for the geosciences. In: EGU topical conference series, 4th Alexander von Humboldt international conference, Santiago, ChileGoogle Scholar
  8. Baraer M, McKenzie JM, Mark BG, Bury J, Knox S (2009) Characterizing contributions of glacier melt and ground water during the dry season in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Adv Geosci 22:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnett TP, Adam JC, Lettenmaier DP (2005) Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature 438:303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barry RG, Seimon A (2000) Research for mountain area development: climatic fluctuations in the mountains of the Americas and their significance. Ambio 29:364–370Google Scholar
  11. BCRP (2009) Economic synthesis for Ancash, January 2009. Central Bank of Peru, LimaGoogle Scholar
  12. Bebbington AJ, Bury JT (2009) Institutional challenges for mining and sustainability in Peru. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(41):17296–17301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Betts RA, Malhi Y, Roberts JT (2008) Review. The future of the Amazon: new perspectives from climate, ecosystem and social sciences. Philos Trans R Soc Biol Sci 363:1729–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blaikie P (1994) At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disasters. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Bohle H, Downing T, Watts M (1994) Climate change and social vulnerability. Toward a sociology and geography of food insecurity. Glob Environ Change 4:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolin I (2001) When Apus are losing their white ponchos environmental dilemmas and restoration efforts in Peru. Dev Coop 6:25–26Google Scholar
  17. Bradley RS, Keimig FT, Diaz HF (2004) Projected temperature changes along the American cordillera and the planned GCOS network. Geophys Res Lett 31:L16210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradley RS, Vuille M, Diaz HF, Vergara W (2006) Climate change: threats to water supplies in the tropical Andes. Science 312:1755–1756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley RS, Keimig FT, Diaz HF, Hardy DR (2009) Recent changes in freezing level heights in the Tropics with implications for the deglacierization of high mountain regions. Geophys Res Lett 36:L17701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brecher HH, Thompson LG (1993) Measurement of the retreat of Qori Kalis glacier in the tropical Andes of Peru by terrestrial photogrammetry. Photogramm Eng Remote Sensing 59:1017–1022Google Scholar
  21. Brooks N, Adger WN (2003) Country level risk measures of climate-related natural disasters and implications for adaptation to climate change. Working paper 26, Tyndall Center for Climate Change ResearchGoogle Scholar
  22. Burton I, White G, Kates R (1978) The environment as hazard. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Bury J (2005) Mining mountains: neoliberalism, land tenure, livelihoods, and the new Peruvian mining industry in Cajamarca. Environ Plann A 37:221–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carey M (2005) Living and dying with glaciers: people’s historical vulnerability to avalanches and outburst floods in Peru. Glob Planet Change 47:122–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carey M (2007) The history of ice: how glaciers became an endangered species. Environ Hist 12:497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carey M (2010) In the shadow of melting glaciers: climate change and Andean Society. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Casassa G, Espizua LE, Francou B, Ribstein P, Ames A, Alean J (1998) Glaciers in South America. Stud Rep Hydrol 56:125–146Google Scholar
  28. CCC (2006) Biodiversity conservation plan for the Campesino community of Catac–Huascaran National Park. Campesino Community of Catac, CatacGoogle Scholar
  29. CEPES (1996) Agrarian law and Campesino communities. Center for Peruvian Social Studies, LimaGoogle Scholar
  30. Clark W, Parson E, Research, Project ASfS, Science BCf, Affairs I, Environment, Program NR (2000) Assessing vulnerability to global environmental risks. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. CONAM (2001) National communication of Peru to the United Nations climate change convention. National Council on the Environment, LimaGoogle Scholar
  32. Cox PM, Harris PP, Huntingford C, Betts RA, Collins M, Jones CD, Jupp TE, Marengo JA, Nobre CA (2008) Increasing risk of Amazonian drought due to decreasing aerosol pollution. Nature 453:212–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cruikshank J (2005) Do glaciers listen?: local knowledge, colonial encounters, and social imagination. Univ of British Columbia Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  34. Cutter S (1996) Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Prog Hum Geogr 20:529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cutter S (2003) The vulnerability of science and the science of vulnerability. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 93:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Del Castillo L (2005) Campesino communities in the 21st century: status and normative changes. Center for Peruvian Social Studies, LimaGoogle Scholar
  37. Diaz HF, Eischeid JK, Duncan C, Bradley RS (2003) Variability of freezing levels, melting season indicators, and snow cover for selected high-elevation and continental regions in the last 50 years. Clim Change 59:33–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dillehay T, Kolata A (2004) Long-term human response to uncertain environmental conditions in the Andes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101:4325–4330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dyurgerov M (2003) Mountain and subpolar glaciers show an increase in sensitivity to climate warming and intensification of the water cycle. J Hydrol 282:164–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eakin HC (2006) Weathering risk in rural Mexico: climatic, institutional, and economic change. Univ of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  41. Eakin H, Luers AL (2006) Assessing the vulnerability of social–environmental systems. Annu Rev Environ Resour 31:365–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eakin HC, Wehbe MB (2009) Linking local vulnerability to system sustainability in a resilience framework: two cases from Latin America. Clim Change 93:355–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fagre DB, Peterson DL, Hessl AE (2003) Taking the pulse of mountains: ecosystem responses to climatic variability. Clim Change 59:263–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Flores AC (2008) Impacts, vulnerability, mitigation and adaptation to the effects of climate change on water resources. National Institute of Natural Resources, HuarazGoogle Scholar
  45. Francou B, Coudrain A (2005) Glacier shrinkage and water resources in the Andes. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 86:415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Francou B, Ribstein P, Semiond H, Portocarrero C, Rodriguez A (1995) Balances de glaciares y clima en Bolivia y Peru: impacto de los eventos ENSO. Bull Inst Fr Etudes Andines 24:661–670Google Scholar
  47. Füssel H (2007) Vulnerability: a generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Glob Environ Change 17:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Georges C (2004) The 20th century glacier fluctuations in the tropcial Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Arct Antarct Alp Res 36:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hastenrath S, Ames A (1995a) Diagnosing the imbalance of Yanamarey Glacier in the Cordillera Blanca of Peru. J Geophys Res 100:5105–5112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hastenrath S, Ames A (1995b) Recession of Yanamarey glacier in Cordillera Blanca, Peru, during the 20th century. J Glaciol 41:191–196Google Scholar
  51. Hegglin E, Huggel C (2008) An integrated assessment of vulnerability to glacial hazards. Mt Res Dev 28:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hewitt K (1983) Interpretations of calamity. Allen & Unwin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  53. IARU (2009) Rising sea levels set to have major impacts around the world. In: Conference on climate change: global risks, challenges and decisions, 10–12 March, International Alliance of Research Universities, University of Copenhagen, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  54. INEI (2006) Ancash statistical compendium. National Institute of Statistics and Information, LimaGoogle Scholar
  55. INEI (2007) The 2007 national census: XI of population and VI of houses. Institute of National Statistics and Information, LimaGoogle Scholar
  56. INRENA (2008) INRENA closes pastoruri peak due to adverse climatic conditions. Peruvian Institute of Natural Resources, LimaGoogle Scholar
  57. IPCC (2007a) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  58. IPCC (2007b) Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Working group II contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  59. Juen I, Kaser G, Georges C (2007) Modelling observed and future runoff from a glacierized tropical catchment (Cordillera Blanca, Peru). Glob Planet Change 59:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kaser G (1999) A review of the modem fluctuations of tropical glaciers. Glob Planet Change 22:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kaser G, Osmaston H (2002) Tropical glaciers. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaser G, Ames A, Zamora M (1990) Glacier fluctuations and climate in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Ann Glaciol 14:136–140Google Scholar
  63. Kaser G, Juen I, Georges C, Gómez J, Tamayo W (2003) The impact of glaciers on the runoff and the reconstruction of mass balance history from hydrological data in the tropical Cordillera Blanca, Peru. J Hydrol 282:130–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. King G, Keohane R, Verba S (1994) Designing social inquiry. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  65. Kinzl H (1942) Gletscherkundliche Begleitworte zur Karte der Cordillera Blanca (Peru). Z Glestch 28:1–19Google Scholar
  66. Kinzl H, Ebster F, Gotthardt E, Heckler K, Schneider E (1964) Begleitworte zur Karte 1:100.000 der Cordillera Blanca (Peru) Sudteil. Wissenschaft Alpenvereinshefte, 17 edn. Universitätsverlag Wagner, InnsbruckGoogle Scholar
  67. Klimeš J, Vilímek V, Omelka M (2009) Implications of geomorphological research for recent and prehistoric avalanches and related hazards at Huascaran, Peru. Nat Hazards 50:193–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kundzewicz Z, Mata L, Arnell N, Döll P, Jimenez B, Miller K, Oki T, Sen Z, Shiklomanov I (2008) The implications of projected climate change for freshwater resources and their management. Hydrol Sci J 53:3–10Google Scholar
  69. Leichenko RM, O’Brien K (2008) Environmental change and globalization: double exposures. Oxford University Press, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Liverman D (1990) Drought impacts in Mexico: climate, agriculture, technology, and land tenure in Sonora and Puebla. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 80:49–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Magrin G, Gay C, Cruz D, Giménez J, Moreno A, Nagy G, Nobre C, Villamizar A (2007) Latin America, climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, pp 581–615Google Scholar
  72. Mark BG (2002) Hot ice: glaciers in the tropics are making the press. Hydrol Process 16:3297–3302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mark BG (2006) Quantifying the significance of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Perú: a case study of hydrological impact and climatic control. In: Knight P (ed) Glacier science and environmental change. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 242–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mark BG, Seltzer GO (2003) Tropical glacier meltwater contribution to stream discharge: a case study in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. J Glaciol 49:271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mark BG, Seltzer GO (2005) Evaluation of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (AD 1962–1999): spatial distribution of mass loss and climatic forcing. Quat Sci Rev 24:2265–2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mark BG, McKenzie JM, Gómez J (2005) Hydrochemical evaluation of changing glacier meltwater contribution to stream discharge: Callejon de Huaylas, Peru. Hydrol Sci J 50:975–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mark BG, Bury J, French A, McKenzie J, Baraer M, Huh K (2010) Climate change and tropical Andean glacier recession: evaluating hydrologic changes and livelihood vulnerability in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Ann Assoc Am Geogr (in press)Google Scholar
  78. MEM (2008) Electrical statistics 2008. Ministry of Energy and Mines, LimaGoogle Scholar
  79. Messerli B (2001) The International Year of the Mountains (IYM), the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI) and PAGES, editorial. PAGES News 9:2Google Scholar
  80. Milner AM, Brown LE, Hannah DM (2009) Hydroecological response of river systems to shrinking glaciers. Hydrol Process 23:62–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Morales Arnao B (1998) Glaciers of South America–glaciers of Peru. In: Williams RS, Ferrigno JG (eds) Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world, 1386 edn. United States Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  82. Morales Arnao B, Hastenrath S (1998) Glaciers of South America–glaciers of Peru. In: Williams RS, Ferrigno JG (eds) Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world, 1386 edn. United States Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  83. Morton JF (2007) The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19680–19685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nogues-Bravo D, Araujo MB, Errea MP, Martinez-Rica JP (2007) Exposure of global mountain systems to climate warming during the 21st century. Glob Environ Change 17:420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Orlove B (2009) Glacier retreat: reviewing the limits of human adaptation to climate change. Environment 51:22–34Google Scholar
  86. Orlove B, Wiegandt E, Luckman BH (2008) Darkening peaks: glacier retreat, science, and society. Univ of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  87. Painter J (2007) Deglaciation in the Andean Region. United Nations Development Programme, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Pearsall DM (2008) Plant domestication and the shift to agriculture in the Andes. In: Silverman H, Isbell WH (eds) The handbook of South American Archaeology. Springer, New York, pp 105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Peet R, Watts M (2004) Liberation ecologies: environment, development, social movements. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  90. PETT (2002) Special land titling and rural cadastral project (PETT). Ministry of Agriculture, LimaGoogle Scholar
  91. Polsky C, Neff R, Yarnal B (2007) Building comparable global change vulnerability assessments: the vulnerability scoping diagram. Glob Environ Change 17:472–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pozorski S, Pozorski T (2008) Early cultural complexity on the coast of Peru. In: Silverman H, Isbell WH (eds) The handbook of South American Archaeology. Springer, New York, pp 607–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pulgar Vidal J (1981) Geografía del Perú. Las ocho regiones naturales del Perú. 8va. edición. Editorial Universo, LimaGoogle Scholar
  94. Quintana-Gomez RA (1999) Trends of maximum and minimum temperatures in northern South America. J Climate 12:2104–2112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Racoviteanu A, Arnaud Y, Williams M (2008) Decadal changes in glacier parameters in Cordillera Blanca, Peru derived from remote sensing. J Glaciol 54:499–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Recharte J, Zapata F, Postigo J, Avellaneda L, Tarazona J (2009) Adapting to a world without glaciers. The Mountain Institute, LimaGoogle Scholar
  97. Rhoades RE, Rfos XZ, Aragundy J (2006) Climate change in Cotacachi. In: Rhoades R (ed) Development with identity: community, culture and sustainability in the Andes. CABI, Cambridge, pp 64–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rosenzweig C, Strzepek KM, Major DC, Iglesias A, Yates DN, McCluskey A, Hillel D (2004) Water resources for agriculture in a changing climate: international case studies. Glob Environ Change Part A 14:345–360Google Scholar
  99. Silverio W, Jaquet JM (2003) Mapping by remote sensing of glacier-induced natural hazards, Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Arch Sci 56:39–58Google Scholar
  100. Stewart I (2009) Changes in snowpack and snowmelt runoff for key mountain regions. Hydrol Process 23:78–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Strauss S, Orlove BS (2003) Weather, climate, culture. Berg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  102. Thomalla F, Downing T, Spanger-Siegfried E, Han G, Rockstrom J (2006) Reducing hazard vulnerability: towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation. Disasters 30:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thompson LG (2000) Ice core evidence for climate change in the Tropics: implications for our future. Quat Sci Rev 19:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Thompson LG, Brecher HH, Mosley-Thompson E, Hardy DR, Mark BG (2009) Glacier loss on Kilimanjaro continues unabated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19770–19775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Thompson LG, Mosley-Thompson E, Brecher H, Davis M, León B, Les D, Lin PN, Mashiotta T, Mountain K (2006) Abrupt tropical climate change: past and present. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Turner B, Robbins P (2008) Land-change science and political ecology: similarities, differences, and implications for sustainability science. Annu Rev Environ Resour 33:295–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Turner B, Kasperson R, Matson P, McCarthy J, Corell R, Christensen L, Eckley N, Kasperson J, Luers A, Martello M (2003) A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8074–8079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. UNDP (2007) Fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world. United Nations Development Program, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. Urrutia R, Vuille M (2009) Climate change projections for the tropical Andes using a regional climate model: temperature and precipitation simulations for the end of the 21st century. J Geophys Res 114:D02108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. USAID (2007) Adapting to climate variability and change. USAID, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  111. Vergara W (2009) Assessing the potential consequences of climate destablization in Peru. The World Bank, Latin American and the Caribbean Region, LCSSD, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  112. Vilímek V, Zapata M, Klimeš J, Patzelt Z, Santillán N (2005) Influence of glacial retreat on natural hazards of the Palcacocha Lake area, Peru. Landslides 2:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vincent LA, Peterson TC, Barros VR, Marino MB, Rusticucci M, Carrasco G, Ramirez E, Alves LM, Ambrizzi T, Berlato MA (2005) Observed trends in indices of daily temperature extremes in South America 1960–2000. J Climate 18:5011–5023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Viviroli D, Durr HH, Messerli B, Meybeck M, Weingartner R (2007) Mountains of the world, water towers for humanity: typology, mapping, and global significance. Water Resour Res 43:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vuille M, Bradley RS (2000) Mean annual temperature trends and their vertical structure in the tropical Andes. Geophys Res Lett 27:3885–3888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vuille M, Kaser G, Juen I (2008a) Glacier mass balance variability in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru and its relationship with climate and the large-scale circulation. Glob Planet Change 62:14–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vuille M, Francou B, Wagnon P, Juen I, Kaser G, Mark BG, Bradley RS (2008b) Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: past, present and future. Earth-Sci Rev 89:79–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. White G (1973) Natural hazards research. In: Chorley RJ (ed) Directions in geography. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  119. Wisner B, Blaikie PM, Cannon T (2004) At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  120. WMO (2009) The state of polar research: a statement from the international council for science/WMO for the International Polar Year 2007/2008. WMO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  121. WorldBank (2008) Development and climate change: a strategic framework for the World Bank Group. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  122. Xu J, Grumbine R, Shrestha A, Eriksson M, Yang X, Wang Y, Wilkes A (2009) The melting Himalayas: cascading effects of climate change on water, biodiversity, and livelihoods. Conserv Biol 23:520–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Young KR (2009) Andean land use and biodiversity: humanized landscapes in a time of change. Ann Mo Bot Gard 96:492–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Young K, Lipton J (2006) Adaptive governance and climate change in the tropical highlands of western South America. Clim Change 78:63–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey T. Bury
    • 1
  • Bryan G. Mark
    • 2
  • Jeffrey M. McKenzie
    • 3
  • Adam French
    • 1
  • Michel Baraer
    • 3
  • Kyung In Huh
    • 2
  • Marco Alfonso Zapata Luyo
    • 4
  • Ricardo Jesús Gómez López
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Environmental StudiesUniversity of California, Santa CruzSanta CruzUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeographyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Earth and Planetary ScienceMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Autoridad Nacional del AguaUnidad de Glaciología y Recursos HídricosHuarazPeru

Personalised recommendations