Climatic Change

, Volume 104, Issue 2, pp 199–222 | Cite as

Is the UK preparing for “war”? Military metaphors, personal carbon allowances, and consumption rationing in historical perspective

  • Maurie J. CohenEmail author


Metaphors are essential devices for fostering collective understanding and forging political commitment across diverse constituencies. Due to the ineffectualness of prevailing linguistic representations of climate change, discursive entrepreneurs have begun to invoke over the last few years new imagery that frames the challenge as tantamount to a protracted state of armed hostility. This process of rhetorical militarization has been most prominent in the UK and it is subsequently creating opportunities for policy makers to propose greenhouse gas-reduction strategies that are reminiscent of wartime austerity programs. A particular approach that has attracted considerable interest is consumer regulation involving the imposition of annual quotas on personal carbon emissions. This idea is best understood as a variant of the comprehensive civilian rationing programs that were deployed during and after World War II. Because any eventual scheme to reduce greenhouse gas production at the individual level will require consummate public legitimacy, this historical experience can serve as a useful reference point for the design of contemporary interventions. To this end, the discussion highlights the methods that the British government used to sustain compliance with the war and postwar consumption control regimes. Of special interest is the role that black market trading and other illicit forms of commerce played during these periods. The conclusion reflects on the status of consumerism in contemporary lifestyles, considers the risks of political interference with consumer prerogatives, and draws some insights from this earlier experience with rationing


Climate Change Global Warming Metaphor Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Black Market 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aaltola M (1999) International relations and epidemics: a short expedition to places inhabited by states and mad cows. Med, Confl, Surviv 15(3):235–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam D (2007) Carbon credits: rationing project tests government plans to make pollution personal. The Guardian, London, pp 15 (10 September)Google Scholar
  3. Addison P (1995) Now the war is over: a social history of Britain, 1945–1951, rev. ed. Pimlico, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Allenby B (2007) Earth systems engineering management. Environ Sci Technol 41(23):7960–7965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Zahrani A (2008) Darwin’s metaphors revisited: conceptual metaphors, conceptual blends, and idealized cognitive models in the theory of evolution. Metaphor Symb 23(1):50–82Google Scholar
  6. Anderson S, Newell R (2004) Prospects for carbon capture and storage technologies. Annu Rev Environ Resour 29:109–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Antilla L (2005) Climate of skepticism: US newspaper coverage of the science of climate change. Glob Environ Change 15(4):338–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arrigo B (1999) Martial metaphors and medical justice: implications for law, crime, and deviance. J Polit Mil Soc 27(2):307–322Google Scholar
  9. Associated Press (2007) Nuclear scientists move “Doomsday Clock” toward midnight. USA Today (17 January)Google Scholar
  10. Barrett K (1995) Personal pollution allowance proposal: an open letter to Massachusetts Gov. William Weld. Available at
  11. Berdanier C (2006) Food shortages during World War II: can we learn from the experience? Nutr Today 41(4):160–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bezdek R, Taylor W (1981) Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions. Science 212(4501):1357–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blendon R, Young J (1998) The public and the war on illicit drugs. J Am Med Assoc 279(11):827–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bocking S (1997) Ecologists and environmental politics: a history of contemporary ecology. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  15. Bone J (1989) Britain takes lead in war on greenhouse effect. The Times, London (9 May)Google Scholar
  16. Bostrom A (2008) Lead is like mercury: risk comparisons, analogies and mental models. J Risk Res 11(1–2):99–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boykoff M (2007a) From convergence to contention: United States mass media representations of anthropogenic climate change science. Trans Inst Br Geogr 32(4):477–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boykoff M (2007b) Flogging a dead norm? Newspaper coverage of anthropogenic climate change in the United States and the United Kingdom from 2003 to 2006. Area 39(4):470–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boykoff M (2008a) Lost in translation? United States television news coverage of anthropogenic climate change, 1995–2004. Clim Change 86(1–2):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boykoff M (2008b) The cultural politics of climate change discourse in UK tabloids. Polit Geogr 27(5):549–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boykoff M, Mansfield M (2008) “Ye olde hot aire”: reporting on human contributions to climate change in the UK tabloid press. Environ Res Lett 3(2):024002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bradley M (2007) Air travel, the sky’s the limit: should I really give up flying? The Observer, London, pp 14 (21 January)Google Scholar
  23. Breakley W (1997) It’s time for the public health community to declare war on homelessness. Am J Public Health 87(2):153–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brooke S (1995) Reform and reconstruction: Britain after the war, 1945–1951. Manchester University Press, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  25. Brüning R, Lohmann G (1999) Charles S. Peirce on creative metaphor: a case study on the conveyor belt metaphor in oceanography. Found Sci 4(4):389–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Calder A (1995) The myth of the blitz. Pimlico, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Carey F, Arndt M (2007) Hugging the tree-huggers: why so many companies are suddenly linking up with eco groups. Business Week, pp 66 (12 March)Google Scholar
  28. Carolan M (2006) The values and vulnerabilities of metaphors within the environmental sciences. Soc Nat Resour 19(10):921–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carter J (1979) Speech on energy and national goals, delivered 15 July. Available at
  30. Carvalho A (2007) Ideological cultures and media discourses on scientific knowledge: re-reading news on climate change. Public Underst Sci 16(2):223–243Google Scholar
  31. Carvalho A, Burgess J (2005) Cultural circuits of climate change in the UK broadsheet newspapers, 1985–2003. Risk Anal 25(6):1457–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chatterton T, Coulter A, Musselwhite C, Lyons G, Clegg S (2009) Understanding how transport choices are affected by the environment and health: views expressed in a study on the use of carbon calculators. Public Health 123(1):E45–E49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chiang W-Y, Duann R (2007) Conceptual metaphors for SARS: “war” between whom? Discourse Soc 18(5):579–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Churcher J (2007) Blair insists Britain will lead world towards combating climate change. Belfast Telegraph, pp 6 (13 March)Google Scholar
  35. Clark A (2007) Planes, a train, and many automobiles as Charles picks up US green award. The Guardian, London, pp 13 (29 January)Google Scholar
  36. Clover C (2007) Too little, too late to reverse climate change. The Daily Telegraph, pp 25 (20 November)Google Scholar
  37. Cohen L (2003) A consumer’s republic: the politics of mass consumption in postwar America. Vintage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Cojanu V (2008) The “market” metaphor and climate change: an epistemological application in the study of green economics. Int J Green Econ 2(3):284–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Connelly M (2004) We can take it! Britain and the memory of the Second World War. Pearson Longman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Costello J (1985) Virtue under fire: how World War II changed our social and sexual attitudes. Little, Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  41. Department of Food, Environment, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) (2008) Synthesis report on the findings from DEFRA’s pre-feasibility study into personal carbon trading. DEFRA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Dessler A, Parson E (2006) The science and politics of global climate change: a guide to the debate. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Doulton H, Brown K (2009) Ten years to prevent catastrophe? Discourses of climate change and international development in the UK press. Glob Environ Change 19(2):191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Doward J, English S, Townsend M (2007) Focus: aftermath of the hurricane. The Observer, London, pp 15 (4 September)Google Scholar
  45. Druckman A, Jackson T (2008) Household energy consumption in the UK: a highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model. Energy Policy 36(8):3167–3182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dryzek J (2005) The politics of the earth: environmental discourses, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Duggan E (2003) We can no longer ignore poverty in our midst. In: Cowger T, Markman S (eds) Lyndon Johnson remembered: an intimate portrait of a presidency. Rowman and Littlefield, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  48. Egger G (2007) Personal carbon trading: a potential “stealth” intervention for obesity reduction? Med J Aust 187(3):185–187Google Scholar
  49. Egger G (2008) Dousing our inflammatory environment(s): is personal carbon trading an option for reducing obesity—and climate change? Obes Rev 9(5):456–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Environmental Audit Committee of the House of Commons (2008) Personal carbon trading. London: HMSO. Available at
  51. Faguet G (2005) The war on cancer: an anatomy of failure, a blueprint for the future. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  52. Fawcett T, Battrill C, Boardman B, Lye G (2007) Trialling personal carbon allowances. Oxford University, Environmental Change Institute, Oxford. Available at
  53. Fleming D (1996) Stopping the traffic. Ctry Life 140(19):62–65Google Scholar
  54. Fleming D (2007) Energy and the common purpose: descending the energy staircase with tradable emission quotas. The Lean Economy Connection, London. Available at
  55. Friedman J (2003) A war on obesity, not the obese. Science 299(5608):856–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gelbspan R (1998) The heat is on, rev. ed. Perseus, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Geppert D (2003) The postwar challenge: cultural, social and political change in Western Europe, 1945–1958. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Golley F (1993) A history of the ecosystem concept in ecology: more than the sum of its parts. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  59. Gough C, Taylor I, Shackley S (2002) Burying carbon under the sea: an initial exploration of public opinions. Energy Environ 13(6):883–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gowdy J, Walton M (2003) Consumer sovereignty, economic efficiency, and the trade liberalisation debate. Int J Glob Environ Issues 3(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Greenberg D (1995) US tobacco war rumbles on. Nature 356(8978):831–832Google Scholar
  62. Griffiths O (2002) Need, greed, and protest in Japan’s black market, 1938–1949. J Soc Hist 35(4):825–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Grubb M (2002) Britannia waives the rules: the UK, the EU, and climate change. New Econ 9(3):139–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hajer M (1995) The politics of environmental discourse: ecological modernization and the policy process. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Halperin S (2004) War and social change in modern Europe: the great transformation revisited. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Hamblyn R (2009) The whistleblower and the canary: rhetorical constructions of climate change. J Hist Geogr 35(2):223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harris J (1997) William Beveridge: a biography, rev. ed. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  68. Heineman B, Heimann F (2006) The long war against corruption. Foreign Aff 85(3):75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hennessy P (2006) Never again: Britain 1945–1951, 2nd edn. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. Hennessy P (2007) Having it so good: Britain in the fifties. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Hillman M (2005) Your planet: the case for rationing. The Independent, London (19 September)Google Scholar
  72. Hillman M (2006) Commentary: personal carbon allowances. Br Med J 332(7554):1387–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hillman M, Fawcett T, Rajan S (2008) How we can save the planet. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  74. Hinsliff G (2008) The young pretender: Miliband—has he got what it takes to be PM? The Observer, London, pp 26 (2 August)Google Scholar
  75. Hinsliff G, Helm T (2008) Labour in turmoil: Miliband woos the left as Labour’s rebels back off. The Observer, London, pp 8 (21 September)Google Scholar
  76. Hodgkin P (1985) Medicine is war, and other medical metaphors. Br Med J 291(6511):1820–1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hollingsworth D (1983) Rationing and economic constraints on food consumption in Britain since the Second World War. World Rev Nutr Diet 42:191–218Google Scholar
  78. Holzscheiter A (2004) Discourse as capability: non-state actors’ capital in global governance. Millenn: J Int Stud 33(3):723–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hopkins H (1963) The new look: a social history of the forties and fifties in Britain. Secker and Warburg, LondonGoogle Scholar
  80. Horowitz D (2005) Jimmy Carter and the energy crisis of the 1970s. St. Martin’s, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  81. Howard M (2005) And what if the sceptics are wrong. The Guardian, London, pp 22 (7 June)Google Scholar
  82. Howell R (2009) The experience of carbon rationing action groups: implications for a personal carbon allowances policy. Oxford University, Environmental Change Institute, Oxford. Available at
  83. Hume M (2008) We will fight them in the recycle bins. The Times, London, pp 15 (27 May)Google Scholar
  84. Huxley R, Lloyd B, Goldacre M, Neil H (2000) Nutritional research in World War 2: the Oxford Nutrition Survey and its research potential 50 years later. Br J Nutr 84(2):247–251Google Scholar
  85. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) Climate change 2007: synthesis report. World Meteorological Association and United Nations Environment Program, Geneva. Available at
  86. Jackson D (2007) Warming up to Arnold. The Boston Globe, pp A13 (20 January)Google Scholar
  87. Jacoby J (2006) Censoring ideas. The Boston Globe, pp A9 (18 October)Google Scholar
  88. Jaeger C, Schellnhuber J, Brovkin V (2008) Stern’s review and Adam’s fallacy. Clim Change 89(3–4):207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Judge A (2007) Misuse of the potential of the conveyor metaphor: recognition of the circular dynamic essential to its operation. J Futures Stud 12(1):109–130Google Scholar
  90. Kenix L (2008) Framing science: climate change in the mainstream and alternative news in New Zealand. Polit Sci 60(1):117–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kennedy F (1996) Clinton’s trip takes toll on birdlife. The Australian, Sydney, pp 3 (29 November)Google Scholar
  92. King D (2004) Climate change science: adapt, mitigate, or ignore? Science 303(5655):176–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kynaston D (2007) Austerity Britain, 1945–1951. Bloomsbury, LondonGoogle Scholar
  94. Lakoff G, Johnson M (2003) Metaphors we live by, rev. ed. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  95. Langenohl A (2008) How to change other people’s institutions: discursive entrepreneurship and the boundary object of competition/competitiveness in the German banking sector. Econ Soc 37(1):68–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Larson B (2005) The war of the roses: demilitarizing invasion biology. Front Ecol Environ 3(9):495–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Larson B, Nerlich B, Wallis P (2005) Metaphors and biorisks: the war on infectious diseases and invasive species. Sci Commun 26(3):243–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lawson D (2008) David Miliband. Prospect Magazine 151. Available at
  99. Leggett J (2001) The carbon war: global warming and the end of the oil era. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. Lindenbaum S (2001) Kuru, prions, and human affairs: thinking about epidemics. Annu Rev Anthropol 30:363–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lindseth G (2005) Local level adaptation to climate change: discursive strategies in the Norwegian context. J Environ Policy Plan 7(1):61–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Litfin K (1994) Ozone discourses: science and politics in global environmental cooperation. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  103. Longmate N (2002) How we lived then: a history of everyday life during the Second World War, rev. ed. Pimlico, LondonGoogle Scholar
  104. Lorenzoni I, Pidgeon N (2006) Public views on climate change: European and USA perspectives. Clim Change 77(1-2):73–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Marwick A (1974) War and social change in the twentieth century: a comparative study of Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and the United States. St. Martin’s, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. Mazur A (2009) American generation of environmental warnings: avian influenza and global warming. Hum Ecol Rev 16(1):17–26Google Scholar
  107. McLean I (2008) Climate change and UK politics: from Brynle Williams to Sir Nicholas Stern. Polit Q 79(2):184–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Meacham J (2007) The editor’s desk. Newsweek, pp 4 (16 April)Google Scholar
  109. Meacher M (2007a) Comment and debate: why we have to challenge the New Labour succession. The Guardian, London, pp 40 (23 February)Google Scholar
  110. Meacher M (2007b) I would turn the lights out. The Ecologist 37(1):22–23Google Scholar
  111. Meierhenrich J (2006) Analogies at war. J Confl Secur Law 11(1):1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Meyer A (2000) Contraction and convergence: the global solution to climate change. Green Books, DartingtonGoogle Scholar
  113. Meyer A (2004) Briefing: contraction and convergence. Proc Inst Civ Eng (Eng Sustain) 157:189–192Google Scholar
  114. Miliband D (2006) The great stink: towards an environmental contract, Audit Commission annual lecture. Available at: (19 July)
  115. Mills G, Rockoff H (1992) Compliance with price controls in the United States and the United Kingdom during World War II. In: Rockoff H (ed) Price Controls. Ashgate, Brookfield, pp 78–94Google Scholar
  116. Monbiot G (2006) Drastic action on climate change is needed now. The Guardian, London, pp 31 (31 October)Google Scholar
  117. Musial J, Stearns J (1973) Gasoline rationing as a solution to resource, environmental, and urban problems. Int J Environ Stud 5(3):173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Nerlich B (2006) War on foot and mouth disease in the UK, 2001: towards a cultural understanding of agriculture. Agric Human Values 21(1):15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Nerlich B, Halliday C (2007) Avian flu: the creation of expectations in the interplay between science and the media. Soc Health and Illn 29(1):46–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Newman R (2006) It’s capitalism or a habitable planet—you can’t have both. The Guardian, London, pp 33 (2 February)Google Scholar
  121. Nixson M (2004) America must join war against global warming, says the green Queen. Mail on Sunday, London, pp 7 (31 October)Google Scholar
  122. Noakes L (1998) War and the British: gender, memory, and national identity. Tauris, LondonGoogle Scholar
  123. Ohl A, Wolf S, Anderson W (2008) A modest proposal: global rationalization of ecological footprint to eliminate ecological debt. Sustain Sci Pract Policy 4(1). Available at
  124. Oppenheimer M (2003) Declare war on global warming. The International Herald Tribune, Paris, pp 6 (8 April)Google Scholar
  125. Pascoe-Watson G (2007) Misson X-possible. The Sun, London, pp 1 (4 October)Google Scholar
  126. Penning-Rowsell E, Johnson C, Turnstall S (2006) “Signals” from pre-crisis discourse: lessons from UK flooding for global environmental policy change? Glob Environ Change 16(4):323–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Penson R, Schapira L, Daniels K, Chabner B, Lynch T (2004) Cancer as metaphor. Oncologist 9(6):708–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pisarski A, de Terra N (1975) American and European transportation responses to the 1973–74 oil embargo. Transportation 4(3):291–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Prescott M (2008) A persuasive climate: personal trading and changing lifestyles. Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, London. Available at
  130. Ramírez A, Hoogwijk M, Hendriks C, Faaij A (2008) Using a participatory approach to develop a sustainability framework for carbon capture and storage systems in The Netherlands. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 2(1):136–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Redmond W (2000) Consumer rationality and consumer sovereignty. Rev Soc Econ 58(2):192–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Reisfield G, Wilson G (2004) Use of metaphor in the discourse on cancer. J Clin Oncol 22(19):4024–4027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Roff R (2007) Shopping for change? Neoliberalizing activism and the limits to eating non-GMO. Agric Human Values 24(4):511–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Roodhouse M (2007a) Enlist the blitz spirit, get out the carbon ration book. Financial Times, London (13 March)Google Scholar
  135. Roodhouse M (2007b) Rationing returns: a solution to global warming? Available at
  136. Rovner J (1997) President Clinton wages public war against AIDS. Lancet 349(9044):39Google Scholar
  137. Sanders P (2008) Economic draining: German black market operations in France 1940–1944. Glob Crime 9(1–2):136–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sandvik H (2008) Public concern over global warming correlates negatively with national wealth. Clim Change 90(3):333–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sarbin T (2003) The metaphor-to-myth transformation with special reference to the “war on terrorism.” Peace and Confl 9(2):149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schlosser E (2003) Reefer madness: sex, drugs, and cheap labor in the American black market. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  141. Schneider S (1989) The greenhouse effect: science and policy. Science 243(4892):771–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schneider S (2008) Geoengineering: could we or should we make it work? Philos Trans R Soc A (Math, Phys Eng Sci) 366(1882):3843–3862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schneider S (2010) Science as a contact sport: inside the battle to save earth’s climate. National Geographic, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  144. Schor J (2007) In defense of consumer critique: revisiting the consumption debates of the twentieth century. Annals Am Acad Polit Soc Sci 611(1):16–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Schrag D (2007) Preparing to capture carbon. Science 315(5813):812–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Seyfang G, Paavola J (2008) Inequality and sustainable consumption: bridging the gaps. Local Environ 13(8):669–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sissions M, French P (eds.) (1986). Age of austerity. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  148. Skirrow J (1986) Waging the war against alcohol abuse. Can Med Assoc J 135(5):434Google Scholar
  149. Smith H (1996) Britain in the Second World War: a social history. Manchester University Press, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  150. Smith M (2000) Britain and 1940: history, myth, and popular memory. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  151. Smith J (2005) Dangerous news: media decision making about climate change risk. Risk Anal 25(6):1471–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Smithies E (1984) The black economy in England since 1914. Humanities, Atlantic HighlandsGoogle Scholar
  153. Somerville R (2006) Medical metaphors for climate issues: an editorial essay. Clim Change 76(1–2):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Starkey R, Anderson K (2005) Domestic tradable quotas: a policy instrument for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from energy use. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Manchester University, Manchester. Available at
  155. Steege P (2007) Black market, cold war: everyday life in Berlin, 1946–1949. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  156. Stern N (2007) The economics of climate change. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  157. Stratton A (2008) Cabinet reshuffle: debutant Miliband brings clout to new department. The Guardian, London, pp 7 (4 October)Google Scholar
  158. Sunday Mail (London) (1989) Declare war, plant a tree. London (11 June)Google Scholar
  159. Tainter J (2008) Introduction. In: Polimeni J, Mayumi K, Giampietro M, Alcott B (eds) The Jevons Paradox and the myth of resource efficiency improvements, pp ix–xvi. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  160. Taylor N, Nathan S (2002) How science contributes to environmental reporting in British newspapers: a case study of the reporting of global warming and climate change. Environmentalist 22(4):325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. The Boston Globe (1989) Empty words on global warming. pp 18 (8 November)Google Scholar
  162. The Economist (2006) Where to start (9 September)Google Scholar
  163. Thorpe K (2007) The forgotten shortage: Britain’s handling of the 1967 oil embargo. Contemp Br Hist 21(2):201–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Törnqvist T (2007) A Dutch geoscience perspective on the Katrina disaster. Neth J Geosci 86(3):307–315Google Scholar
  165. Toynbee P (2008) Carbon credits tick all the boxes: what’s the delay? The Guardian, London, pp 35 (16 August)Google Scholar
  166. Turner D (2005) Are we at war with nature? Environ Values 14(1):21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Ungar S (2000) Knowledge, ignorance, and the popular culture: climate change versus the ozone hole. Public Underst Sci 9(3):297–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ungar S (2003) Global warming versus ozone depletion: failure and success in North America. Clim Res 213(3):263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Van Alphen K, van Voorst tot Voorst Q, Hekkert M, Smits R (2007) Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies. Energy Policy 35(8):4368–4380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Vincent J (2007) Science and imagery in the “war on old age.” Ageing Soc 27(6):941–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Virgoe J (2008) International governance of a possible geoengineering intervention to combat climate change. Clim Change 95(1–2):103–119Google Scholar
  172. Walker K (2007) Meacher mounts the old labour challenge to Brown. Daily Mail, London, pp 10 (23 February)Google Scholar
  173. Watson R (2008) Charles urges war on climate change. The Times, London, pp 4 (15 February)Google Scholar
  174. Wiman B (1995) Metaphors, analogies, and models in communicating climate-change uncertainties and economics to policy : a note on a pre-UNCED U.S. case. Ecol Econ 15(1):21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Wintour P (2007) Labour to set legal limit on UK carbon emissions. The Guardian, London, pp 1 (13 March)Google Scholar
  176. Wintour P, Stratton A (2008) Target to cut carbon emissions may be increased as Miliband insists climate change is priority. The Guardian, London, pp 12 (16 October)Google Scholar
  177. Worster D (1992) Nature’s economy: a history of ecological ideas, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  178. Zweiniger-Bargielowska I (2000) Austerity in Britain: rationing, controls, and consumption, 1939–1955. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Program in Environmental Policy StudiesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations