Climatic Change

, Volume 100, Issue 3–4, pp 757–768 | Cite as

Perspectives of Northern Sea Route and Northwest Passage in the twenty-first century

  • V. C. Khon
  • I. I. Mokhov
  • M. Latif
  • V. A. Semenov
  • W. Park


The ability of modern climate models to simulate ice season length in the Arctic, its recent changes and navigation season on Arctic marine routes along the Eurasian and the North American coastlines is evaluated using satellite ice cover observations for 1979–2007. Simulated mean sea ice season duration fits remarkably well to satellite observations and so do the simulated 20th century changes using historical forcing. This provides confidence to extend the analysis to projections for the twenty-first century. The navigation season for the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and Northwest Passage (NWP), alternative sea routes from the North Atlantic to Asia, will considerably increase during this century. The models predict prolongation of the season with a free passage from 3 to 6 months for the NSR and from 2 to 4 months for the NWP by the end of twenty-first century according to A1B scenario of the IPCC. This suggests that transit through the NSR from Western Europe to the Far East may be up to 15% more profitable in comparison to Suez Canal transit by the end of the twenty-first century.


Canadian Arctic Archipelago Panama Canal Kiel Climate Model Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Northwest Passage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. C. Khon
    • 1
    • 2
  • I. I. Mokhov
    • 1
  • M. Latif
    • 3
  • V. A. Semenov
    • 1
    • 3
  • W. Park
    • 3
  1. 1.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute of GeosciencesUniversity of KielKielGermany
  3. 3.Leibniz Institute of Marine SciencesUniversity of KielKielGermany

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