Warming of an elevated layer over the Caribbean
- 229 Downloads
Air temperatures in the trade wind inversion (~850 hPa) over the Caribbean have been rising much faster than sea temperatures. This is associated with an accelerated Hadley circulation, with sinking motions over the Caribbean corresponding with increasing rising motion over the Amazon. The sinking motions induce a faster rate of warming and drying in the trade wind inversion than at other levels. Much of the trend in Caribbean climate is attributable to physical mechanisms; changes in atmospheric composition play a secondary role. Smoke and dust plumes from Africa, drifting westward across the Atlantic, enhance the greenhouse effect in an elevated (1–3 km) layer. A stabilized lower atmosphere across the Caribbean has contributed to warming and drying trends over the twentieth century which are projected to continue. The atmosphere is warming faster than the ocean, causing a decline in sensible heat fluxes that fuel tropical cyclones.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Delworth TL, Rosati A, Stouffer RJ, Dixon KW, Dunne J, Findell K, Ginoux P, Gnanadesikan A, Gordon CT, Griffies SM, Gudgel R, Harrison MJ, Held IM, Hemler RS, Horowitz LW, Klein SA, Knutson TR, Lin S-J, Milly PCD, Ramaswamy V, Schwarzkopf MD, Sirutis JJ, Stern WF, Spelman MJ, Winton M, Wittenberg AT, Wyman B (2006) GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: formulation and simulation characteristics. J Climate 19(5):643–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gnanadeskan A, Dixon KW, Griffies SM, Balaji V, Barreiro M, Beesley JA, Cooke WF, Delworth TL, Gerdes R, Harrison MJ, Held IM, Hurlin WJ, Lee H-C, Liang Z, Nong G, Pacanowski RC, Rosati A, Russell J, Samuels BL, Song Q, Spelman MJ, Stouffer RJ, Sweeney CO, Vecchi G, Winton M, Wittenberg AT, Zeng F, Zhang R, Dunne JP (2006) GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part 2, basline ocean simulation. J Climate 19:675–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hawkins MD, Morris VR, Nalli NR, Joseph E (2007) Comparison of aeroso1 and ozone profiles within Saharan dust and biomass burning plumes. Proc AMS Conf Atmos Chem Austin J7.9Google Scholar
- Hobbs PV (2000) Introduction to atmospheric chemistry. Cambridge Univ Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2007) Physical science basis. In: Solomon S et al (eds) 4th assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge Univ Press, New York, 996 ppGoogle Scholar
- Mfuamba J-P (2007) Tropospheric ozone climatology at Brazzaville. MSc thesis, Univ. K.Z.Natal, Durban, 88 ppGoogle Scholar
- Wong S, Dessler AE, Colarco PR, dsSilva A (2007) The instability associated with the cross-Atlantic transport of Saharan dust and its meteorological implications. Proc AMS Conf Atmos Chem Austin J7.8Google Scholar