Climatic Change

, Volume 95, Issue 3–4, pp 369–394 | Cite as

Non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting carbon dioxide emissions: bottom–up estimates for the world as a whole and for major developing countries

  • Martin WeissEmail author
  • Maarten Neelis
  • Kornelis Blok
  • Martin Patel


We present and apply a simple bottom–up model for estimating non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. We apply this model for the year 2000: (1) to the world as a whole, (2) to the aggregate of Annex I countries and non-Annex I countries, and (3) to the ten non-Annex I countries with the highest consumption of fossil fuels for non-energy purposes. We find that worldwide non-energy use is equivalent to 1,670 ± 120 Mt (megatonnes) CO2 and leads to 700 ± 90 Mt CO2 emissions. Around 75% of non-energy use emissions is related to industrial processes. The remainder is attributed to the emission source categories of solvent and other product use, agriculture, and waste. Annex I countries account for 51% (360 ± 50 Mt CO2) and non-Annex I countries for 49% (340 ± 70 Mt CO2) of worldwide non-energy use emissions. Among non-Annex I countries, China is by far the largest emitter of non-energy use emissions (122 ± 18 Mt CO2). Our research deepens the understanding of non-energy use and related CO2 emissions in countries for which detailed emission inventories do not yet exist. Despite existing model uncertainties, we recommend NEAT-SIMP to inventory experts for preparing correct and complete non-energy use emission estimates for any country in the world.


Gross Domestic Product Bitumen Emission Factor International Energy Agency Ammonia Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Weiss
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maarten Neelis
    • 1
  • Kornelis Blok
    • 1
  • Martin Patel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Section of Science, Technology and Society; Copernicus Institute—Research Institute for Sustainable Development and InnovationUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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