Climatic Change

, Volume 95, Issue 1–2, pp 169–193 | Cite as

Global climate change and potential effects on Pacific salmonids in freshwater ecosystems of southeast Alaska



General circulation models predict increases in air temperatures from 1°C to 5°C as atmospheric CO2 continues to rise during the next 100 years. Thermal regimes in freshwater ecosystems will change as air temperatures increase regionally. As air temperatures increase, the distribution and intensity of precipitation will change which will in turn alter freshwater hydrology. Low elevation floodplains and wetlands will flood as continental ice sheets melt, increasing sea-levels. Although anadromous salmonids exist over a wide range of climatic conditions along the Pacific coast, individual stocks have adapted life history strategies—time of emergence, run timing, and residence time in freshwater—that are often unique to regions and watersheds. The response of anadromous salmonids will differ among species depending on their life cycle in freshwater. For pink and chum salmon that migrate to the ocean shortly after they emerge from the gravel, higher temperatures during spawning and incubation may result in earlier entry into the ocean when food resources are low. Shifts in thermal regimes in lakes will change trophic conditions that will affect juvenile sockeye salmon growth and survival. Decreased summer stream flows and higher water temperatures will affect growth and survival of juvenile coho salmon. Rising sea-levels will inundate low elevation spawning areas for pink salmon and floodplain rearing habitats for juvenile coho salmon. Rapid changes in climatic conditions may not extirpate anadromous salmonids in the region, but they will impose greater stress on many stocks that are adapted to present climatic conditions. Survival of sustainable populations will depend on the existing genetic diversity within and among stocks, conservative harvest management, and habitat conservation.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alderdice DF, Velsen FPJ (1978) Relation between temperature and incubation time for eggs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). J Fish Res Board Canada 35:69–75Google Scholar
  2. Alley RB, Clark PU, Huybrechts P, Joughin I (2005) Ice-sheet and sea-level changes. Science 310:456–460Google Scholar
  3. Bagiun CR, Sedell JR, Reeves G (2000) Influence of water temperature in use of deep pools by summer steelhead in Steamboat Creek, Oregon (USA). J Freshw Ecol 15(2):269–279Google Scholar
  4. Baker TT, Wertheimer AC, Burkett RD, Dunlap R, Eggers DM, Fritts AJ, Gharrett AJ, Holmes RA, Wilmot RL (1996) Status of Pacific salmon and steelhead escapements in Southeast Alaska. Fisheries 21(10):6–18Google Scholar
  5. Beamish RJ (ed) (1995) Climate change and northern fish populations. Canadian Special Publication in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  6. Beamish RJ, Bouillon DR (1993) Pacific salmon production trends in relation to climate. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50:1002–1016Google Scholar
  7. Beamish RJ, Noakes DJ, McFarlane GA, Klyashtorin L, Ivanov VV, Kurashov V (1999) The regime concept and natural trends in the production of Pacific salmon. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:516–526Google Scholar
  8. Beckman BR, Larsen DA, Moriyama S, Lee-Pawlek B, Dickhoff W (1998) Insulin-like growth factor-I and environmental modulation of growth during smoltification of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Gen Comp Endocrinol 109:325–335Google Scholar
  9. Beechie T, Buhle E, Rucklshaus M, Fullerton A, Holsinger L (2006) Hydrologic regime and the conservation of salmon life history diversity. Biol Conserv 130:560–572Google Scholar
  10. Beer WN, Anderson JJ (2001) Effect of spawning day and temperature on salmon emergence: interpretations of a growth model for Methow River chinook. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:941–949Google Scholar
  11. Benda L (1990) The influence of debris flows on channels and valley floors of the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Earth Surf Processes Landf 15:457–466Google Scholar
  12. Berggren T, Filardo M (1993) An analysis of variables influencing the migration of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. N Am J Fish Manage 13:48–63Google Scholar
  13. Berman CH, Quinn TP (1991) Behavioral thermoregulation and homing by spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Yakima River. J Fish Biol 39:301–312Google Scholar
  14. Bisson PA, Davis GE (1976) Production of juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in a heated model stream. Fish Bull 74(4):763–775Google Scholar
  15. Blum MD, Tornqvist TT (2000) Fluvial responses to climate and sea-level change: a review and look forward. Sedimentology 47:1–48Google Scholar
  16. Bramblett RG, Bryant MD, Wright BE, White RG (2002) Seasonal use of small tributary and main-stem habitats by juvenile steelhead, coho salmon, and Dolly Varden in a Southeastern Alaska drainage basin. Trans Am Fish Soc 131:498–506Google Scholar
  17. Bryant MD (1984a) Distribution of salmonids in the Trap Bay Basin, Tenakee Inlet. Alaska. In: Meehan WR, Merrell TR, Hanley TA (eds) Fish and wildlife relationships in old-growth forests: Proceedings of a Symposium. American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists, Juneau, pp 17–31Google Scholar
  18. Bryant MD (1984b) The role of beaver ponds as coho salmon habitat in southeast Alaska streams. In: Walton JM, Houston DB (eds) Proceedings of the Olympic Wild Fish Conference. Port Angles, WA, pp 183–192Google Scholar
  19. Bryant MD (1991) The Copper River Delta Pulse Study: an interdisciplinary survey of the aquatic habitats. US Department of the Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, 43 p, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-282Google Scholar
  20. Bryant MD, Everest FH (1998) Management and condition of watersheds in southeast Alaska: the persistence of anadromous salmonids. Northwest Sci 72:249–267Google Scholar
  21. Bryant MD, Frenette BJ, Coghill KT (1996) Use of the littoral zone by introduced anadromous salmonids and resident trout, Margaret Lake, Southeast Alaska. Alaska Fish Res Bull 3:112–122Google Scholar
  22. Bryant MD, Frenette BJ, McCurdy SJ (1999) Colonization of a watershed by anadromous salmonids following the installation of a fish ladder in Margaret Creek, southeast Alaska. N Am J Fish Manage 19:1129–1136Google Scholar
  23. Bryant MD, Zymonas ND, Wright BE (2004) Salmonids on the fringe: abundance, species composition, and habitat use of salmonids in high gradient headwater streams, Southeast Alaska. Trans Am Fish Soc 133:1529–1538Google Scholar
  24. Burgner RL (1991) Life history of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). In: Groot C, Margolis L (eds) Pacific salmon life histories. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 1–118Google Scholar
  25. Carpenter SR, Fisher SG, Grimm NB, Kitchell JF (1992) Global change and freshwater ecosystems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 23:119–139Google Scholar
  26. Cartwright MA, Beauchamp DA, Bryant MD (1998) Quantifying cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) predation on sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fry using a bioenergetics approach. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:1285–1295Google Scholar
  27. Cederholm CJ, Reid LM (1987) Impact of forest management on coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations of the Clearwater River, Washington: project summary. In: Salo EO, Cundy TW (eds) Streamside management: forestry and fishery interactions. University of Washington, Seattle, pp 373–397Google Scholar
  28. Clark JH, McGregor A, Mecum RD, Krasnowski P, Carrol AM (2006) The commercial fishery in Alaska. Alsk Fish Res J 12(1):1–146Google Scholar
  29. Craig P, Haldorson L (1986) Pacific Salmon in the North American arctic. Arctic 39(1):2–7Google Scholar
  30. Douglas BC, Kearney MS, Leatherman SP (eds) (2001) Sea level rise history and consequences. Academic, New York, 225 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Eaton JG, Scheller RM (1996) Effects of climate warming in fish thermal habitat in streams of the United States. Limnol Oceanogr 41(4):1109–1115Google Scholar
  32. Eggers D (2007) Run forecasts and harvest projections for 2007 Alaska salmon fisheries and review of the 2006 season. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Commercial Fisheries Division, Juneau, Special Publication No. 07-01Google Scholar
  33. Elliott ST, Reed RD (1974) A study of land-use activities and their relationship to the sport fish resources in Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Juneau, Study D-1, Job D-1-BGoogle Scholar
  34. Everest FH, Meehan WR (1981) Forest productivity and anadromous fish habitat productivity. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D C, pp 521–530Google Scholar
  35. Galbraith H, Jones R, Park R, Clough J, Herrod-Julius S, Harrington B, Page G (2002) Global climate change and sea level rise: potential losses of intertidal habitat for shorebirds. Waterbirds 25:173–183Google Scholar
  36. Gornitz V (1993) Mean sea level changes in the recent past. In: Warrick RA, Barrow EM, Wigley TML (eds) Climate and sea level change: observations, projections and implications. University of Cambridge Press, Cambridge, pp 25–44Google Scholar
  37. Gornitz V (1995) Sea-level rise: a review of recent past and near-future trends. Earth Surf Processes Landf 20:7–20Google Scholar
  38. Groot C, Margolis L (eds) (1991) Pacific salmon life histories. UBC, Vancouver, 564 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Halupka KC, Bryant MD, Willson MF, Everest FH (2000) Biological characteristics and population status of anadromous salmon in southeast Alaska. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, 255 pp, General Technical Report GTR-PNW-468Google Scholar
  40. Halupka KC, Willson MF, Bryant MD, Everest FH, Gharret AJ (2003) Conservation of population diversity of Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska. N Am J Fish Manage 23:1057–1086Google Scholar
  41. Hansen MJ, Holey ME (2002) Ecological factors affecting the sustainability of Chinook and Coho salmon populations in the Great Lakes, especially Lake Michigan. In: Lynch KD, Jones ML, Taylor WW (eds) Sustaining North American salmon: perspectives across regions and disciplines. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 155–180Google Scholar
  42. Hare SR, Mantua NJ (2000) Empirical evidence for North Pacific regime shifts in 1977 and 1989. Prog Oceanogr 47:103–145Google Scholar
  43. Hare SR, Mantua NJ, Francis RC (1999) Inverse production regimes: Alaska and west coast Pacific salmon. Fisheries 24(1):6–14Google Scholar
  44. Harr RD, McCorison FM (1979) Initial effects of clear-cut logging on size and timing of peak flows in a small watershed in Western Oregon. Wat Resour Res 15(1):90–94Google Scholar
  45. Hauer FR, Baron JS, Campbell DH, Fausch KD, Hostetler SW, Leavesley GH, Leavitt PR, McKnight DM, Stanford JA (1997) Assessment of climate change and freshwater ecosystem of the Rocky Mountains, USA and Canada. Hydrol Process 11:903–924Google Scholar
  46. Healey MC (1991) Life history of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). In: Groot C, Margolis L (eds) Pacific salmon life histories. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 313–393Google Scholar
  47. Heard WR (1991) Life history of pink salmon. In: Groot C, Margolis L (eds) Pacific salmon life histories. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 121–232Google Scholar
  48. Heifetz J, Murphy ML, Koski KV (1986) Effects of logging on winter habitat of juvenile salmonids in Alaskan streams. N Am J Fish Manage 6:52–58Google Scholar
  49. Heming TA, McInerney JE, Alderdice DF (1982) Effect of temperature on initial feeding in alevins of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39(12):1554–1562Google Scholar
  50. Hendry AP, Hensleigh JE, Reisenbicher RR (1998) Incubation temperature, development biology, and divergence of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) within Lake Washington. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:1387–1394Google Scholar
  51. Hendry A, Wenburg JK, Bentzen P, Volk EC, Quinn TP (2000) Rapid evolution of reproductive isolation in the wild: evidence from introduced salmon. Science 290:515–518Google Scholar
  52. Hengeveld HG (1990) Global climate change: implications for air temperature and water supply in Canada. Trans Am Fish Soc 119:176–182Google Scholar
  53. Hetrick NJ, Brusven MA, Bjornn TC, Keith RM, Meehan WR (1998) Effects of canopy removal on invertebrates and diet of juvenile coho salmon in a small stream in southeast Alaska. Trans Am Fish Soc 127:876–888Google Scholar
  54. Hicks SD, Shofnos W (1965) The determination of land emergence from sea level observations in southeast Alaska. J Geophys Res 70:3315–3320Google Scholar
  55. Hilborn R, Quinn TP, Schindler DE, Rogers DE (2003) Biocomplexity and fisheries sustainability. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100(11):6564–6568Google Scholar
  56. Hodgson S, Quinn TP (2002) The timing of adult sockeye salmon migration into freshwater: adaptations by populations to prevailing thermal regimes. Can J Zool 80:542–555Google Scholar
  57. Hogan DL (1987) The influence of large organic debris and channel recovery in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. AHS-AISH Publ 165:844–852Google Scholar
  58. Hollowed AB, Hare SR, Wooster WS (2001) Pacific basin climate variability and patterns of northeast Pacific marine fish production. Prog Oceanogr 49:257–282Google Scholar
  59. Holtby LB, McMahon TE, Scrivener JC (1989) Stream temperatures and inter-annual variability in the emigration timing of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts and fry and chum salmon (O. keta) fry from Carnation Creek, British Columbia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:1396–1405Google Scholar
  60. Holtby BL, Andersen BC, Kadowaki RK (1990) Importance of smolt size and early ocean growth to inter-annual variability in marine survival of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kitsch). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 47(11):2181–2194Google Scholar
  61. Howe AL, Walker RJ, Olnes C, Bingham AE (2001) Revised edition harvest, catch, and participation in Alaska sport fisheries during 1997. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Sport Fish, Research and Technical Services, Anchorage, Fishery Data Series No. 98-25 (revised)Google Scholar
  62. Hughes NF (1998) A model of habitat selection by drift-feeding stream salmonids at different scales. Ecology 79:281–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hutchinson GE (1957) A treatise on limnology. Volume I Geography, physics, and chemistry. Wiley, New York, 1015 ppGoogle Scholar
  64. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change. In: Solomon SD, Qin D, Manning M, Chaen Z, Marquis M, Avert KB, Tigor M, Miller HL (eds) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 996 ppGoogle Scholar
  65. Johnson AC, Swanston DN, McGee KE (2000) Landslide initiation, runout, and deposition within clear-cuts and old-growth forests of Alaska. J Am Water Res Assoc 35:1–14Google Scholar
  66. Kalkstein LS (1991) Global comparisons of selected GCM control runs and observed climate data. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, Climate Change Division, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  67. Koski KV, Nicola SJ, Salo EO (1966) Alaskan salmon studies. Part A. Effects of logging on the productivity of pink salmon streams in Alaska. Fisheries Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Periodic Report No. 3Google Scholar
  68. Larsen CF, Motyka RJ, Freymueller JT, Echlemeyer KA, Ivins ER (2005) Rapid viscoelastic uplift in southeast Alaska caused by pre-little ice age glacial retreat. Earth Planet Sci Lett 237:548–560Google Scholar
  69. Lawson PW, Logerwell EA, Mantua NJ, Francis RC, Agostini VN (2004) Environmental factors influencing freshwater survival and smolt production in Pacific Northwest coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:360–373Google Scholar
  70. Levy DA (1992) Potential impacts of global warming on salmon production in the Fraser River watershed. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 1889. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Vancouver, 96 ppGoogle Scholar
  71. Lisle TE (1989) Sediment transport and resulting deposition in spawning gravels, North Coastal California. Water Resour Res 25(6):1303–1319Google Scholar
  72. Magnuson JJ, Meisner JD, Hill DK (1990) Potential changes in the thermal habitat of Great Lakes fish after global climate warming. Trans Am Fish Soc 119:254–264Google Scholar
  73. McDonald ME, Hershey AE, Miller MC (1996) Global warming impacts on lake trout in arctic lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 41(5):1102–1108Google Scholar
  74. Meacham CP, Clark JH (1994) Pacific salmon management—the view from Alaska. Alaska Fish Bull 1:76–80Google Scholar
  75. Mecklenburg CW, Mecklenburg TA, Thorsteinson LK (2002) Fishes of Alaska. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, 1037 ppGoogle Scholar
  76. Meisner JD (1990) Effect of climatic warming on the southern margins of the native range of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 47(6):1065–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Melack JM, Dozier J, Goldman CR, Greenland D, Milner AM, Naiman RJ (1997) Effects of climate change on inland waters of the Pacific Coastal Mountains and western great basin of North America. Hydrol Process 11:971–992Google Scholar
  78. Mortensen D, Wertheimer A, Landingham J (1999) The relation between early marine growth of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and marine water temperature, secondary production, and survival to adulthood. Fish Bull 98:319–335Google Scholar
  79. Moscrip A, Montgomery D (1997) Urbanization, flood frequency, and salmon abundance in Puget Sound lowland streams. J Am Water Res Assoc 33:1289–1297Google Scholar
  80. Mote PW, Parson EA, Hamlet AF, Keeton WS, Lettenmaier D, Mantua N, Miles EL, Peterson DW, Peterson DL, Slaughter R, Snover AK (2003) Preparing for climate change: the water, salmon, and forests of the Pacific Northwest. Climatic Change 61:45–88Google Scholar
  81. Mueter FJ, Peterman RM, Pyper BJ (2002) Opposite effects of ocean temperature on survival rates of 120 stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in northern and southern areas. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59:456–463Google Scholar
  82. Murphy ML (1985) Die-offs of pre-spawn adult pink salmon and chum salmon in southeastern Alaska. N Am J Fish Manage 5:302–308Google Scholar
  83. Murphy M, Heifetz J, Johnson S, Koski K, Thedinga J (1986) Effects of clear-cut logging with and without buffer strips on juvenile salmonids in Alaskan streams. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:1521–1533Google Scholar
  84. Murphy ML, Heifetz J, Thedinga JF, Johnson SW, Koski KV (1989) Habitat utilization by juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) in the glacial Taku River, southeast Alaska. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:1677–1685Google Scholar
  85. Neal EG, Walter TM, Coffeen C (2002) Linking the Pacific decadal oscillation to seasonal stream discharge patterns in Southeast Alaska. J Hydrology 263:188–197Google Scholar
  86. Nehlson W (1997) Pacific salmon status and trends—a coastwise perspective. In: Stouder DJ, Bisson PA, Naiman RJ (eds) Pacific salmon and their ecosystems, status and future options. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 41–50Google Scholar
  87. Neumann JE, Yohe G, Nicholls R, Manion M (2000) Sea-level rise and global climate change: a review of impacts to U.S. coasts. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, 43 pp,
  88. Nickelson TE, Rodgers JD, Johnson SL, Solazzi MF (1992) Seasonal changes in habitat use by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon coastal streams. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:783–789Google Scholar
  89. Nowacki G, Shephard M, Krosse P, Pawuk W, Fisher G, Baichtal J, Brew D, Kissinger E, Brock T (2001) Ecological subsections of southeast Alaska and neighboring areas of Canada. USDA Forest Service, Alaska Region, Juneau, 306 pp, R10-TP-75Google Scholar
  90. Pahlke KA (1995) Coded wire tagging studies of Chinook salmon of the Unuk and Chickamin rivers, Alaska, 1983–1993. Alaska Fish Res Bull 2(2):93–113Google Scholar
  91. Peltier R (2001) Global glacial isostatic adjustment and modern instrument records of relative sea level history. In: Douglas BC, Kearney MS, Leatherman SP (eds) Global glacial isostatic adjustment and modern instrument records of relative sea level history. Academic, New York, pp 65–96Google Scholar
  92. Pentec Environmental Inc (1991) Factors affecting pink salmon pre-spawning mortality in southeast Alaska. Alaska Working Group on Cooperative Forestry/Fisheries Research, Juneau, 81 pGoogle Scholar
  93. Peterson NP (1982) Immigration of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) into riverine ponds. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39:1308–1310Google Scholar
  94. Poff NL, Allan JD (1995) Functional organization of stream fish assemblages in relation to hydrological variability. Ecology 76:606–617Google Scholar
  95. Pollock MM, Pess GR, Beechie TJ, Montgomery DR (2004) The importance of beaver ponds to coho production in the Stillaguamish River basin, Washington, USA. N Am J Fish Manage 24(3):749–760Google Scholar
  96. Pyper BJ, Peterman RM (1999) Relationship among adult body length, abundance, and ocean temperature for British Columbia and Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), 1967–1997. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:2726–1730Google Scholar
  97. Quinn TP (2005) The behavior and ecology of Pacific salmon and trout. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  98. Quinn TP, Kinnison MT, Unwin MJ (2001) Evolution of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in New Zealand: pattern, rate, and process. Genetica 112–113:493–513Google Scholar
  99. Rahmstorf S (2007) A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 315:368–370Google Scholar
  100. Reeves GH, Burnett KM, McGarry EV (2003) Sources of large wood in the main stem of a fourth-order watershed in coastal Oregon. Can J For Res 33:1363–1370Google Scholar
  101. Rogers DE, Rogers BJ (1998) Limnology in the Wood River Lakes. University of Washington, Fisheries Research Institute, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  102. Rosenfeld J, Porter M, Parkinson E (2000) Habitat factors affecting the abundance and distribution of juvenile cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:766–774Google Scholar
  103. Rouse WR, Douglas MSV, Hecky RE, Hershey AE, Kling Lesack L, Marsh P, McDonald M, Nicholson BJ, Roulet NT, Smol JP (1997) Effects of climate change on the freshwaters of arctic and subarctic North America. Hydrol Process 11(8):873–902Google Scholar
  104. Salo EO (1991) Life history of chum salmon. In: Groot C, Margolis L (eds) Pacific salmon life histories. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 233–309Google Scholar
  105. Sampson JR (1994) The distribution and habitat value of wetlands created by beaver (Castor canadensis) in southeast Alaska. MS Thesis. University of Washington, Seattle, 71 ppGoogle Scholar
  106. Schaberg KL (2006) Importance of muskeg channel habitats to juvenile coho salmon in the Situk River, Alaska: seasonal patterns of use and contribution to total smolt production. MS Thesis. University of Alaska, FairbanksGoogle Scholar
  107. Schindler DW (1997) Widespread effects of climatic warming on freshwater ecosystems in North America. Hydrol Process 11:1043–1067Google Scholar
  108. Scott WB, Crossman EJ (1973) Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa, 966 ppGoogle Scholar
  109. Shaul L, McPherson S, Jones E, Crabtree K (2003) Stock status and escapement goals for coho salmon stocks in southeast Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Juneau, 40 pp, Special Publication No. 03-02Google Scholar
  110. Smith JB, Tirpak DA (1989) The potential effects of global climate change on the United States. US Environmental Protection Agency, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC, 349 ppGoogle Scholar
  111. Smoker WA (1955) Effects of stream flow in silver salmon production in western Washington. PhD Dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle, 175 ppGoogle Scholar
  112. Sommer TR, Nobriga ML, Harrell WC, Batham W, Kimmerer WJ (2001) Floodplain rearing of juvenile Chinook salmon: evidence of enhanced growth and survival. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:325–333Google Scholar
  113. Stewart IT, Cayan DR, Dettinger MD (2004) Changes in snowmelt runoff timing in Western North America under a ‘business as usual’ climate change scenario. Clim Change 62:217–232Google Scholar
  114. Swales S, Levings CD (1989) Role of off-channel ponds in the life cycle of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and other juvenile salmonids in the Coldwater River, British Columbia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:232–242Google Scholar
  115. Swanson FJ, Benda LE, Duncan SH, Grant GE, Megahan WF, Reid LM, Ziemer RR (1987) Mass failures and other processes of sediment production in Pacific Northwest forest landscapes. In: Salo EO, Cundy TW (eds) Streamside management: forestry and fishery interactions. University of Washington, Seattle, pp 9–38Google Scholar
  116. Swanston DN (1970) Mechanics of debris avalanching in shallow till soils of Southeast Alaska. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, 17 pp, General Technical Report PNW-103Google Scholar
  117. Tang J, Bryant MD, Brannon EL (1987) Effects of temperature extremes on the mortality and development rates of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) embryos and alevins. Prog Fish Cult 49(2):167–174Google Scholar
  118. Taylor EB (1990) Environmental correlates of life-history variation in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum). J Fish Biol 37:1–17Google Scholar
  119. Thedinga JF, Murphy ML, Heifetz J, Koski KV, Johnson SW (1989) Effects of logging on size and age composition of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and density of presorts in Southeast Alaska Streams. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:1383–1391Google Scholar
  120. Titus JG (1990) Sea level rise. In: Smith JB, Tirpak DA (eds) The potential effects of global climate change on the United States. Hemisphere, New York, pp 319–365Google Scholar
  121. Torgersen CE, Price DM, Li HW, McIntosh BA (1995) Thermal refugia and Chinook salmon habitat in Oregon: application of airborne thermal videography. In: Mausel P (ed) Proceedings of the 15th biennial workshop on color photography and videography in resource assessment. American society for photogrammetry and remote sensing, Terre Haute, pp 167–171Google Scholar
  122. Trenberth KE (1999) Conceptual framework for changes of extremes of the hydrological cycle with climate change. Clim Change 42:327–339Google Scholar
  123. Tripp D (1998) Evolution of fish habitat structure and diversity at log jams in logged and unlogged streams subject to mass wasting. In: Hogan DL, Tschaplinski PJ, Chatwin S (eds) Carnation creek and queen charlotte islands: applying 20 years of coastal research to management solutions. Land Management Handbook 41. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, pp 97–108Google Scholar
  124. Tripp DB, Poulin VA (1986a) The effects of logging and mass wasting on salmonid spawning habitat in streams on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Research Branch, Ministry of Forests and Lands, Victoria, 29 ppGoogle Scholar
  125. Tripp DB, Poulin VA (1986b) The effects of mass wasting on juvenile fish habitats in streams on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Research Branch, Ministry of Forests and Lands, Victoria, 48 pp, Report 45Google Scholar
  126. Waples RS (1991) Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., and the definition of “species” and the Endangered Species Act. Mar Fish Rev 53(3):11–22Google Scholar
  127. Warrick RA, Barrow EM, Wigley TML (eds) (1993) Climate and sea level change: observations, projections and implications. University of Cambridge Press, Cambridge, 425 ppGoogle Scholar
  128. Welch DW, Ishida Y, Nagasawa K (1998a) Thermal limits and ocean migrations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): long-term consequences of global warming. Can J Fish Aquatic Sciences 55:937–948Google Scholar
  129. Welch DW, Ward BR, Smith BD, Eveson JP (1998b) Influence of the 1990 ocean climate shift on British Columbia steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) populations. Technical Report of the North Pacific Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, 8–10 ppGoogle Scholar
  130. Westley PAH, Hilborn R (2006) Chignik salmon studies investigations of salmon populations, hydrology, and limnology of the Chignik Lakes, Alaska, during 2005–2006. University of Washington, School of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, Seattle, 39 ppGoogle Scholar
  131. Wigley TML, Raper SCB (1993) Future changes in global mean temperature and sea level. In: Warrick RA, Barrow EM, Wigley TML (eds) Climate and sea level change: observations, projections and implications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 111–113Google Scholar
  132. Wilzbach MA, Hall JD (1985) Prey availability and foraging behavior of cutthroat trout in an open and forested section of stream. Verh Internat Ver Limnol 22:2516–2522Google Scholar
  133. Winder MA, Schindler DE (2004) Climate effects on the phenology of lake processes. Glob Chang Biol 10:188–1856Google Scholar

Copyright information

© U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southern Research StationStonevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations