Climatic Change

, Volume 72, Issue 3, pp 251–298 | Cite as

Evidence and Implications of Recent Climate Change in Northern Alaska and Other Arctic Regions

  • Larry D. HinzmanEmail author
  • Neil D. Bettez
  • W. Robert Bolton
  • F. Stuart Chapin
  • Mark B. Dyurgerov
  • Chris L. Fastie
  • Brad Griffith
  • Robert D. Hollister
  • Allen Hope
  • Henry P. Huntington
  • Anne M. Jensen
  • Gensuo J. Jia
  • Torre Jorgenson
  • Douglas L. Kane
  • David R. Klein
  • Gary Kofinas
  • Amanda H. Lynch
  • Andrea H. Lloyd
  • A. David McGuire
  • Frederick E. Nelson
  • Walter C. Oechel
  • Thomas E. Osterkamp
  • Charles H. Racine
  • Vladimir E. Romanovsky
  • Robert S. Stone
  • Douglas A. Stow
  • Matthew Sturm
  • Craig E. Tweedie
  • George L. Vourlitis
  • Marilyn D. Walker
  • Donald A. Walker
  • Patrick J. Webber
  • Jeffrey M. Welker
  • Kevin S. Winker
  • Kenji Yoshikawa


The Arctic climate is changing. Permafrost is warming, hydrological processes are changing and biological and social systems are also evolving in response to these changing conditions. Knowing how the structure and function of arctic terrestrial ecosystems are responding to recent and persistent climate change is paramount to understanding the future state of the Earth system and how humans will need to adapt. Our holistic review presents a broad array of evidence that illustrates convincingly; the Arctic is undergoing a system-wide response to an altered climatic state. New extreme and seasonal surface climatic conditions are being experienced, a range of biophysical states and processes influenced by the threshold and phase change of freezing point are being altered, hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are shifting, and more regularly human sub-systems are being affected. Importantly, the patterns, magnitude and mechanisms of change have sometimes been unpredictable or difficult to isolate due to compounding factors. In almost every discipline represented, we show how the biocomplexity of the Arctic system has highlighted and challenged a paucity of integrated scientific knowledge, the lack of sustained observational and experimental time series, and the technical and logistic constraints of researching the Arctic environment. This study supports ongoing efforts to strengthen the interdisciplinarity of arctic system science and improve the coupling of large scale experimental manipulation with sustained time series observations by incorporating and integrating novel technologies, remote sensing and modeling.


System Science Freezing Point Biogeochemical Cycle Arctic Region Logistic Constraint 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry D. Hinzman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Neil D. Bettez
    • 2
  • W. Robert Bolton
    • 1
  • F. Stuart Chapin
    • 1
  • Mark B. Dyurgerov
    • 3
  • Chris L. Fastie
    • 4
  • Brad Griffith
    • 12
  • Robert D. Hollister
    • 5
  • Allen Hope
    • 6
  • Henry P. Huntington
    • 7
  • Anne M. Jensen
    • 8
  • Gensuo J. Jia
    • 9
  • Torre Jorgenson
    • 10
  • Douglas L. Kane
    • 1
  • David R. Klein
    • 1
  • Gary Kofinas
    • 1
  • Amanda H. Lynch
    • 11
  • Andrea H. Lloyd
    • 4
  • A. David McGuire
    • 12
  • Frederick E. Nelson
    • 13
  • Walter C. Oechel
    • 6
  • Thomas E. Osterkamp
    • 1
  • Charles H. Racine
    • 14
  • Vladimir E. Romanovsky
    • 1
  • Robert S. Stone
    • 15
  • Douglas A. Stow
    • 6
  • Matthew Sturm
    • 14
  • Craig E. Tweedie
    • 5
  • George L. Vourlitis
    • 16
  • Marilyn D. Walker
    • 17
  • Donald A. Walker
    • 1
  • Patrick J. Webber
    • 5
  • Jeffrey M. Welker
    • 18
  • Kevin S. Winker
    • 1
  • Kenji Yoshikawa
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research CenterFairbanks
  2. 2.Marine Biological LaboratoryU.S.A.
  3. 3.University of ColoradoU.S.A.
  4. 4.Middlebury CollegeU.S.A.
  5. 5.Michigan State UniversityU.S.A.
  6. 6.San Diego State UniversityU.S.A.
  7. 7.Huntington ConsultingU.S.A.
  8. 8.Ukpeaġvik Iñupiat CorporationU.S.A.
  9. 9.Colorado State UniversityU.S.A.
  10. 10.Alaska Biological ResearchU.S.A.
  11. 11.Monash UniversityAustralia
  12. 12.US Geological SurveyU.S.A.
  13. 13.University of DelawareU.S.A.
  14. 14.Cold Regions Research and Engineering LaboratoryU.S.A.
  15. 15.National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationU.S.A.
  16. 16.California State UniversitySan MarcosU.S.A.
  17. 17.US Forest ServiceU.S.A.
  18. 18.University of Alaska AnchorageU.S.A.

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