Climatic Change

, Volume 73, Issue 1–2, pp 169–194

Early Ship Observational Data and Icoads

  • Scott D. Woodruff
  • Henry F. Diaz
  • Steven J. Worley
  • Richard W. Reynolds
  • Sandra J. Lubker
Article

Abstract

Many surface marine meteorological observations (∼125 million) from ships' logbooks have been assembled in the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) back to the late 18th century. We describe the makeup of the available data before 1950, and a recent update for that period incorporating a variety of US and international sources – focusing on the background, digitization, and processing of the US Maury Collection, which provides the earliest data (mainly 1830–1860) currently blended into ICOADS. We also describe planned data and metadata additions to early ICOADS. Among these, the new Climatological Database for the World's Oceans (CLIWOC) will extend and enhance coverage for 1750–1854. Prospects for data improvements and homogeneity enhancements to further benefit climate research are also discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agnew, D. C.: 2004, ‘Robert Fitzroy and the myth of the ‘Marsden Square’: Transatlantic rivalries in early marine meteorology’, Notes Rec. R. Soc. Lond. 58(1), 21–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AWS-WB (Air Weather Service and Weather Bureau): 1954a, Reference Manual 193: Dutch Marine Obs, HQ, Air Weather Service, Data Control Div., and Weather Bureau, Climatological Services Div. (rev. 30 October 1954), 7 pp. [Available from NCDC.]Google Scholar
  3. AWS-WB (Air Weather Service and Weather Bureau): 1954b, Reference Manual 194: British Marine Obs, HQ, Air Weather Service, Data Control Div., and Weather Bureau, Climatological Services Div. (12 May 1954), 11 pp. [Available from NCDC.]Google Scholar
  4. AWS-WB (Air Weather Service and Weather Bureau): 1958, Reference Manual 192: Deutsche Seewarte Marine, HQ, Air Weather Service, Data Control Div., and Weather Bureau, Climatological Services Div. (rev. 10 February 1958), 14 pp. [Available from NCDC.]Google Scholar
  5. AWS-WB (Air Weather Service and Weather Bureau): 1964, Reference Manual 116: U.S. Marine Sfc. Obs., Climatic Center, USAF, Air Weather Service (MATS), and NWRC, Office of Climatology, U.S. Weather Bureau (rev. September 1964), 11 pp. [Available from NCDC.]Google Scholar
  6. Barnett, T. P.: 1984, ‘Long-term trends in surface temperature over the oceans’, Mon. Wea. Rev. 112, 303–312.Google Scholar
  7. Bates, C. C. and Fuller, J. F.: 1986, America's Weather Warriors, 1814–1985, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 360 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Braun, D. S.: 2000, ‘Scientific vision, a passion for observation, and the impetus for change: Germany loans Maury logs to the National Climatic Data Center’, Earth Syst. Monit. 11(1), 4–7. Google Scholar
  9. Cardone, V. J., Greenwood, J. G., and Cane, M. A.: 1990, ‘On trends in historical marine wind data’, J. Climate 3, 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Catchpole, A. J. W.: 1992, ‘Hudson's Bay Company ships' Log-Books As Sources of Sea Ice Data, 1751–1870’, in Bradley, R. S. and Jones, P. D. (eds.), Climate Since AD 1500, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 17–39.Google Scholar
  11. Darter, L. J.: 1941, ‘Federal archives relating to Matthew Fontaine Maury’, Amer. Neptune 1, 149–158.Google Scholar
  12. Diaz, H. F. and Woodruff, S. D. (eds.): 1999, in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Digitization and Preparation of Historical Surface Marine Data and Metadata (Toledo, Spain, 15–17 September 1997), WMO/TD-No.957, MMROA Report No. 43, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 114 pp. Google Scholar
  13. Dunbar, R. B., Wellington, G. M., Colgan, M. W., and Glynn, P. W.: 1994, ‘Eastern Pacific sea surface temperature since 1600 A.D.: The δ18O record of climate variability in Galápagos corals’, Paleoceanography 9(2), 291–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elms, J. D.: 1999, ‘Digitizing U.S. Historical Marine Collections (1792–1976)’, in Diaz, H. F. and Woodruff, S. D. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Digitization and Preparation of Historical Surface Marine Data and Metadata (Toledo, Spain, 15–17 September 1997), WMO/TD-No.957, MMROA Report No. 43, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp. 7–13. Google Scholar
  15. Elms, J. D., Woodruff, S. D., Worley, S. J., and Hanson, C.: 1993, ‘Digitizing historical records for the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)’, Earth Syst. Monit. 4(2), 4–10. Google Scholar
  16. Flint, W.: 1994, ‘Lightships: Sentinels of the sea-lanes – Part 1’, Mar. Wea. Log 38(4), 10–15.Google Scholar
  17. Folland, C. K. and Parker, D. E.: 1995, ‘Correction of instrumental biases in historical sea surface temperature data’, Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 121, 319–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Folland, C. K. et al.: 2001, ‘Observed climate variability and change’, in Houghton, J. T. et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, pp. 99–181.Google Scholar
  19. García-Herrera, R., Können, G. P., Wheeler, D. A., Prieto, M. R., Jones, P. D., and Koek, F. B.: 2005, ‘CLIWOC: A climatological database for the world's oceans 1750–1854’, Clim. Change, this volume.Google Scholar
  20. Greenough, M. L.: 1998, Report on Conversion of NCDC Microfilms to Electronic Files with FOSDIC, Greenough Data Associates, Rockville, MD. [Available from NCDC.]Google Scholar
  21. Guo, F.: 1999, ‘The quality control of the Maury Collection’, in Diaz, H. F. and Woodruff, S. D. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Digitization and Preparation of Historical Surface Marine Data and Metadata (Toledo, Spain, 15–17 September 1997), WMO/TD-No.957, MMROA Report No. 43, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp. 3–6. Google Scholar
  22. Jackson, A., Jonkers, A. R. T., and Walker, M. R.: 2000, ‘Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records’, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 358, 957–990.Google Scholar
  23. Levitus, S., Boyer, T. P., Conkright, M. E., O'Brien, T., Antonov, J., Stephens, C., Stathoplos, L., Johnson, D., and Gelfeld, R.: 1998, World Ocean Database 1998: Volume 1: Introduction, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 18, US Government Printing Office, Washington, 346 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Lewis, J. M.: 1996, ‘Winds over the World Sea: Maury and Köppen’, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 77, 935–952.Google Scholar
  25. Manabe, T.: 1999, ‘The digitized Kobe Collection, phase I: Historical surface marine meteorological observations in the archive of the Japan Meteorological Agency’, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2703–2715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maritime Conference: 1875, Report of the Proceedings of the Conference on Maritime Meteorology held in London, 1874, Protocols and Appendices, Published by Authority of the Meteorological Committee, Official No. 23, HM Stationery Office, London, 61 pp. Google Scholar
  27. Maury, M. F.: 1848, Abstract Log for the Use of American Navigators, Prepared under the direction of Commodore Lewis Warrington, Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, by authority of Hon. John Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy, by Lieut. M. F. Maury, U. S. N., Superintendent National Observatory, C. Alexander, Printer, Washington, 10 pp. of Explanations. [Available within the US Maury Collection.]Google Scholar
  28. Maury, M. F.: 1851, Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 3rd Ed., C. Alexander, Printer, Washington, 315 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Maury, M. F.: 1854, ‘Maritime Conference held at Brussels for devising a uniform system of meteorological observations at sea, August and September, 1853’, in Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 6th Ed., E. C. and J. Biddle, Philadelphia, pp. 54–96.Google Scholar
  30. McDonald, W. F.: 1938, Atlas of Climatic Charts of the Oceans, US Dept. of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, W. B. No. 1247, Washington.Google Scholar
  31. Mierzejewska, A. W., Wu, Z., Newell, R. E., and Miyashita, T.: 1997, ‘Japanese whaling ships' sea surface temperature 1946–84’, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78, 443–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. NARA (National Archives and Records Administration): 1986, The Maury Abstract Logs, 1796–1861 (pamphlet describing microfilm publication M1160), NARA, Washington, 8 pp. Google Scholar
  33. NCDC (National Climatic Data Center): 1968, TDF-11 Reference Manual, NCDC, Asheville, NC, 138 pp. Google Scholar
  34. NCDC (National Climatic Data Center): 1998, The Maury Collection: Global Ship Observations, 1792–1910 (CD-ROM, Version 1.0, February 1998), NCDC, Asheville, NC.Google Scholar
  35. Oliver, J. and Kington, J. A.: 1970, ‘The usefulness of ships' log-books in the synoptic analysis of past climates’, Weather 25, 520–528.Google Scholar
  36. Page, J.: 1901, Instructions to the Voluntary Meteorological Observers of the U. S. Hydrographic Office, Hydrographic Office No. 119, Government Printing Office, Washington, 39 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Parker, D. and Jackson, M.: 1999, ‘Digitization of UK merchant ships' data for 1935–39’, in Diaz, H. F. and Woodruff, S. D. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Digitization and Preparation of Historical Surface Marine Data and Metadata (Toledo, Spain, 15–17 September 1997), WMO/TD-No.957, MMROA Report No. 43, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp. 53–56. Google Scholar
  38. Parker, D., Kent, E., Woodruff, S., Dehenauw, D., Harrison, D. E., Manabe, T., Meitus, M., Swail, V., and Worley, S.: 2004, ‘The Second JCOMM Workshop on Advances in Marine Climatology (CLIMAR-II)’, WMO Bulletin 53(2), 157–159.Google Scholar
  39. Quayle, R.: 1977, ‘Marine climatology since 1860’, Environmental Data Service, January 1977, 18–21.Google Scholar
  40. Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell, D. P., Kent, E. C., and Kaplan, A.: 2003, ‘Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century’, J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4407, doi:10.1029/2002JD002670.Google Scholar
  41. Reynolds, R. W., Rayner, N. A., Smith, T. M., Stokes, D. C., and Wang, W.: 2002, ‘An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate’, J. Climate 15, 1609–1625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Slutz, R. J., Lubker, S. J., Hiscox, J. D., Woodruff, S. D., Jenne, R. L., Joseph, D. H., Steurer, P. M., and Elms, J. D.: 1985, ‘Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set; Release 1. NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Climate Research Program, Boulder, CO, 268 pp. Google Scholar
  43. Smith, T. M. and Reynolds, R. W.: 2002, ‘Bias corrections for historical sea surface temperatures based on marine air temperatures’, J. Climate 15, 73–87.Google Scholar
  44. Smith, T. M., Reynolds, R. W., Livezey, R. E., and Stokes, D. C.: 1996, ‘Reconstruction of historical sea surface temperatures using empirical orthogonal functions’, J. Climate 9, 1403–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. US Hydrographic Office: 1878, Meteorological Journal Instructions, Government Printing Office, Washington. [Notes: Several editions, the earliest dated 1878, are known to exist (the Journals cover 1878–94).]Google Scholar
  46. US Weather Bureau-JMA: 1960, Guide Book of the Japanese Marine Surface Data, US Weather Bureau and Japan Meteorological Agency, 527 pp.Google Scholar
  47. Verploegh, G.: 1966, Report of the Consultant on the Historical Sea-Surface Temperature Data Project, 49 pp. plus Annexes. [Notes: The Consultant was to, but the report appears not to have been archived by, WMO. Copies were obtained courtesy of the UK Met Office and KNMI.]Google Scholar
  48. Wagner, V.: 1999, ‘Historical Data and Its Processing in the Deutscher Wetterdienst’, in Diaz, H. F. and Woodruff, S. D. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Digitization and Preparation of Historical Surface Marine Data and Metadata (Toledo, Spain, 15–17 September 1997), WMO/TD-No.957, MMROA Report No. 43, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp. 19–29. Google Scholar
  49. Wallbrink, H., Koek, F., Können, G. P., and Brandsma, T.: 2003, ‘Sea-level pressure observations from Dutch ships 1854–1938 incorporated in COADS Release 1c climatology’, Int. J. Climatol. 23, 471–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ward, M. N. and Hoskins, B. J.: 1996, ‘Near-surface wind over the global ocean 1949–88’, J. Climate 9, 1877–1895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Woodruff, S. D.: 1990, ‘Preliminary comparison of COADS (US) and MDB (UK) ship reports’, in Parker, D. (ed.), Observed Climate Variations and Change: Contributions in Support of Section 7 of the 1990 IPCC Scientific Assessment, WMO/UNEP publication.Google Scholar
  52. Woodruff, S. D., Slutz, R. J., Jenne, R. L., and Steurer, P. M.: 1987, ‘A comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set’, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 68, 1239–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Woodruff, S. D., Diaz, H. F., Elms, J. D., and Worley, S. J.: 1998, ‘COADS Release 2 data and metadata enhancements for improvements of marine surface flux fields’, Phys. Chem. Earth 23, 517–526. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Woodruff, S., Wishman, E., Silva, F., Lubker, S., and Nitter, M.: 1999, ‘Incorporation of the Norwegian ship logbook collection into COADS’, in Diaz, H. F. and Woodruff, S. D. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Digitization and Preparation of Historical Surface Marine Data and Metadata (Toledo, Spain, 15–17 September 1997), WMO/TD-No.957, MMROA Report No. 43, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp. 99–103. Google Scholar
  55. Woodruff, S., Elms, J., Reynolds, R., Garcia, R., Guo, F., Worley, S., and Yoshida, T.: 2004, ‘Rescuing marine data’, World Climate News No. 25 (June 2004), WMO, Geneva, 10.Google Scholar
  56. Worley, S. J., Woodruff, S. D., Reynolds, R. W., Lubker, S. J., and Lott, N.: 2005, ‘ICOADS Release 2.1 data and products’, Int. J. Climatol. (accepted).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott D. Woodruff
    • 1
  • Henry F. Diaz
    • 1
  • Steven J. Worley
    • 2
  • Richard W. Reynolds
    • 3
  • Sandra J. Lubker
    • 1
  1. 1.NOAA Climate Diagnostics Center, NOAA/OARBoulderU.S.A.
  2. 2.National Center for Atmospheric ResearchBoulderU.S.A.
  3. 3.National Climatic Data Center, NOAA/NESDISAshevilleU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations