Language Resources and Evaluation

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 379–408 | Cite as

A resource of errors written in Spanish by people with dyslexia and its linguistic, phonetic and visual analysis

  • Luz Rello
  • Ricardo Baeza-Yates
  • Joaquim Llisterri
Original Paper


In this work we introduce the analysis of DysList, a language resource for Spanish composed of a list of unique spelling errors extracted from a collection of texts written by people with dyslexia. Each of the errors was annotated with a set of characteristics as well as with visual and phonetic features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest resource of this kind in Spanish. We also analyzed all the features of Spanish errors and our main finding is that dyslexic errors are phonetically and visually motivated.


Errors Dyslexia Visual Phonetics Resource Spanish 



We thank Martí Mayo for computing some of the features and the first author thanks the partial funding of a doctoral fellowship (FI-DGR) of the Generalitat de Calaluyna (Government of Catalonia). We thank Yolanda Otal de la Torre, teacher and professional of CREIX—Centro de Desarrollo Infantil Barcelona for helping us to collect texts written by people with dyslexia. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luz Rello
    • 1
  • Ricardo Baeza-Yates
    • 2
    • 3
  • Joaquim Llisterri
    • 4
  1. 1.HCI Institute, School of Computer ScienceCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Web Research GroupUniv. Pompeu FabraBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Yahoo LabsSunnyvaleUSA
  4. 4.Departament de Filologia EspanyolaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterraSpain

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