Language Resources and Evaluation

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 753–775 | Cite as

The IMP historical Slovene language resources

  • Tomaž Erjavec
Project Notes


The paper describes the combined results of several projects which constitute a basic language resource infrastructure for printed historical Slovene. The IMP language resources consist of a digital library, an annotated corpus and a lexicon, which are interlinked and uniformly encoded following the Text Encoding Initiative Guidelines. The library holds about 650 units (mostly complete books) consisting of facsimiles with 45,000 pages as well as hand-corrected and structured transcriptions. The hand-annotated corpus has 300,000 tokens, where each word is tagged with its modernised word form, lemma, part-of-speech and, in cases of archaic words, its nearest contemporary equivalents. This information was extracted into the lexicon, which also covers an extended target-annotated corpus, resulting in 20,000 lemmas (of these 4,000 archaic) with 50,000 modern word forms and 70,000 attested forms. We have also developed a program to modernise, tag and lemmatise historical Slovene, and annotated the digital library with it, producing an automatically annotated corpus of 15 million words. To serve the humanities, the digital library and lexicon are available for reading and browsing on the web and the corpora via a concordancer. For language technology research and development the resources are available in source TEI XML under the Creative Commons Attribution licence. The paper presents the IMP resources, available from, the process of their compilation, encoding and dissemination, and concludes with directions for future research.


Historical language resources Slovene language Text Encoding Initiative Non-standard language normalisation 



The author thanks the two anonymous reviewers for useful comments and suggestions. For collaborating in the compilation of the IMP language resources thanks are due to Kozma Ahačič, Simon Atelšek, Tina Benčina, Katja Cingerle, Metod Čepar, Darja Fišer, Miran Hladnik, Alenka Jelovšek, Urška Kamenšek, Alenka Kavčič Čolić, Domen Kermc, Maša Kodrič, Simon Krek, Nina Mikulin, Matija Ogrin, Daša Pokorn, Erich Prunč, Zala Šmid, Ines Vodopivec and Maja Žorga Dulmin. The work presented in this paper was supported by the Austrian Academy project “Deutsch-slowenische/kroatische Übersetzung 1848–1918”, the EU IMPACT project “Improving Access to Text”, the Google Digital Humanities Research Award “Language models for historical Slovenian”, and the Research Programme P2-0103 “Knowledge Technologies” funded by the Slovenian Research Agency.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Knowledge TechnologiesJožef Stefan InstituteLjubljanaSlovenia

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