Language Resources and Evaluation

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 1–18 | Cite as

<tiger2/>: serialising the ISO SynAF syntactic object model

  • Laurent Romary
  • Amir Zeldes
  • Florian Zipser
Original Paper


This paper introduces <tiger2/>, an XML format developed to serialise the object model defined by the ISO Syntactic Annotation Framework SynAF. Based on widespread best practices we adapt a popular XML format for syntactic annotation, TigerXML, with additional features to support a variety of syntactic phenomena including constituent and dependency structures, binding, and different node types such as compounds or empty elements. We also define interfaces to other formats and standards including the Morpho-syntactic Annotation Framework MAF and the ISOCat Data Category Registry. Finally a case study of the German Treebank TueBa-D/Z is presented, showcasing the handling of constituent structures, topological fields and coreference annotation in tandem.


syntactic annotation XML format corpus corpora Treebank Tiger XML 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.InriaParisFrance
  2. 2.Institut für Deutsche Sprache und LinguistikHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Department of LinguisticsGeorgetown UniversityWashingtonUSA

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