Language Resources and Evaluation

, Volume 41, Issue 3–4, pp 325–339

An annotation scheme for conversational gestures: how to economically capture timing and form


DOI: 10.1007/s10579-007-9053-5

Cite this article as:
Kipp, M., Neff, M. & Albrecht, I. Lang Resources & Evaluation (2007) 41: 325. doi:10.1007/s10579-007-9053-5


The empirical investigation of human gesture stands at the center of multiple research disciplines, and various gesture annotation schemes exist, with varying degrees of precision and required annotation effort. We present a gesture annotation scheme for the specific purpose of automatically generating and animating character-specific hand/arm gestures, but with potential general value. We focus on how to capture temporal structure and locational information with relatively little annotation effort. The scheme is evaluated in terms of how accurately it captures the original gestures by re-creating those gestures on an animated character using the annotated data. This paper presents our scheme in detail and compares it to other approaches.


Multimodal corpora Embodied conversational agents Gesture generation Human–computer interaction 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DFKI, Embodied Agents Research GroupSaarbrückenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Program in Technocultural StudiesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.TomTec Imaging Systems GmbHUnterschleißheimGermany

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