Language Resources and Evaluation

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 209–214

WordNet then and now

Article

Abstract

We briefly discuss the origin and development of WordNet, a large lexical database for English. We outline its design and contents as well as its usefulness for Natural Language Processing. Finally, we discuss crosslinguistic WordNets and complementary lexical resources.

Keywords

Computational linguistics Lexical semantics Lexicon NLP Ontology WordNet Word sense disambiguation 

References

  1. Boyd-Graber, J., Fellbaum, C., Osherson, D., & Schapire, R. (2006). Adding dense, weighted, connections to WordNet. In P. Sojka, K-S. Choi, C. Fellbaum & P. Vossen (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International WordNet Conference (pp. 29–36). Brno: Masaryk University.Google Scholar
  2. Cruse, D.A. (1986). Lexical semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Fellbaum, C. (Ed.) (1998). WordNet: An electronic lexical database. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  4. Fellbaum, C., & Miller, G.A. (2003). Morphosemantic links in WordNet. Traitement automatique de langue, 44(2), 69–80.Google Scholar
  5. Fellbaum, C., & Vossen, P. (2007). Connecting the universal to the specific. In T. Ishida, S. R. Fussell & P.T. J. M. Vossen (Eds.), Intercultural collaboration: First international workshop, lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 4568, pp. 1–16). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Gangemi A., Guarino N., Masolo C., & Oltramari A. (2003). Sweetening WordNet with DOLCE. AI Magazine 24(3), 13–24.Google Scholar
  7. Ide, N., Reppen, R., & Suderman, K. (2002). The American national corpus: More than the web can provide. In Proceedings of the Third LREC Conference, Spain.Google Scholar
  8. Katz, J. J., & Fodor J. A. (1963). The structure of a semantic theory. Language, 39(2), 120–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Levin, B. (1993). English verb classes and alternations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  10. Mihalcea, R., & Moldovan, R. (2001). eXtended WordNet: Progress report. Proceedings of the NAACL Workshop on WordNet and Other Lexical Resources (pp. 95–100).Google Scholar
  11. Miller, G. A. (Ed.) (1990). WordNet. Special Issue of the International Journal of Lexicography 3(4).Google Scholar
  12. Miller, G. A. (1995). WordNet: A lexical database for english. Communications of the ACM, 38, 39–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Miller, G. A., & Hristea, F. (2006). WordNet nouns: Classes and instances. Computational Linguistics, 32(1), 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Niles, I., & Pease, A. (2001). Towards a standard upper ontology. In Proceedings of FOIS–2 (pp. 2–9). Maine: Ogunquit.Google Scholar
  15. Niles, I., & Pease, A. (2003). Linking lexicons and ontologies: Mapping WordNet to the suggested upper merged ontology. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Knowledge Engineering (pp. 5–6).Google Scholar
  16. Palmer, M., Gildea, D., & Kingsbury, P. (2005). The proposition bank: A corpus annotated with semantic roles. Computational Linguistics, 31(1), 71–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pustejovsky, J., Castaño, J., Ingria, R., Saurí, R., Gaizauskas, R., Setzer, A., & Katz, G. (2003). TimeML: Robust specification of event and temporal expressions in text. In Proceedings of IWCS-5, Fifth International Workshop on Computational Semantics.Google Scholar
  18. Rappaport, M. H., & Levin, B. (1998). Building verb meanings. In M. Butt & W. Geuder (Eds.), The projection of arguments, Stanford (pp. 97–134). CA: CSLI.Google Scholar
  19. Ruppenhofer, J., Baker, C.F., & Fillmore, C. (2002). The FrameNet database and software tools. In A. Braasch & C. Povlsen (Eds.), Proceedings of the Tenth Euralex International Congress (pp. 371–375). Copenhagen: Denmark.Google Scholar
  20. Talmy, L. (1985). Lexicalization patterns: Semantic structure in lexical form. In T. Shopen (Ed.), Language typology and syntactic description (pp. 57–149). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Tufis, D. (Ed.) (2004). The BalkaNet project. Special Issue of the Romanian Journal of Information Science and Technology 7.Google Scholar
  22. Vossen, P. (Ed.) (1998). EuroWordNet. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  23. Wierzbicka, A. (1996). Semantics: Primes and universals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Wilson, T., Wiebe, J., & Hwa, R. (2006). Recognizing strong and weak opinion clauses. Computational Intelligence 22(2), 73–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Woods, W. A. (1975). What’s in a link: Foundations for semantic networks. In D. G. Bobrow & A. Collins (Eds.), Representation and understanding: Studies in cognitive science (pp. 35–82). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cognitive Science Laboratory, Department of PsychologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations