Language Resources and Evaluation

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 109–118 | Cite as

Getting to the Heart of the Matter: Speech as the Expression of Affect; Rather than Just Text or Language

  • Nick Campbell


This paper addresses the current needs for so-called emotion in speech, but points out that the issue is better described as the expression of relationships and attitudes rather than the currently held raw (or big-six) emotional states. From an analysis of more than three years of daily conversational speech, we find the direct expression of emotion to be extremely rare, and contend that when speech technologists say that what we need now is more ‘emotion’ in speech, what they really mean is that the current technologies are too text-based, and that more expression of speaker attitude, affect, and discourse relationships is required.


emotion neuro-psychology non-verbal speech paralinguistic information speech technology 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ATR Network Informatics LabsKeihanna Science CityKyotoJapan

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