Increased Working Memory Load in a Dual-Task Design Impairs Nonverbal Social Encoding in Children with High and Low Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms
- 60 Downloads
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to have difficulty with peer relations, though the mechanisms by which these children struggle with interpersonal relationships are not well known. The current study examined the relation between working memory (WM) and the encoding of nonverbal social cues using a dual-task paradigm tested in children with High and Low ADHD symptoms. A total of 40 children were recruited (20 High ADHD; 20 Low ADHD) and completed computerized tasks of social encoding and WM in both single- and dual-task conditions. A series of repeated measures mixed-model ANOVAs revealed that both children with High ADHD and Low ADHD performed significantly worse during the dual-task condition compared to the single task conditions. Also, children with High ADHD had significantly lower performance than Low ADHD children on task-based social encoding and WM. This study supports the role of WM in nonverbal social encoding in children.
KeywordsADHD Social encoding Dual-task methodology Social problems
This study was not funded by any outside source or agency.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the study.
- 2.Rose AJ, Asher SR (2000) Children’s friendships. In: Hendrick C, Hendrick SS (eds) Close relationships: a sourcebook. Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 3.Becker SP, Fite PJ, Luebbe A, Stoppelbein L, Greening L (2013) Friendship intimacy exchange buffers the relation between ADHD symptoms and later social problems among children attending an after-school care program. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 35:142–152Google Scholar
- 4.Bukowski WM, Motzoi C, Meyer F (2009) Friendship as process, function, and outcome. In: Rubin K, Bukowski WM, Laursen B (eds) Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups. Guilford, New York, pp 217–231Google Scholar
- 5.Hodges EV, Boivin M, Vitaro F, Bukowski WM (1999) The power of friendship: protection against an escalating cycle of peer victimization. Dev Psychol 33:1032–1039Google Scholar
- 8.Parker G, Seal J (1996) Forming, losing, renewing, and replacing friendships: applying temporal parameters to the assessment of children’s friendship experiences. Child Dev 67:2248–2268Google Scholar
- 11.Barkley RA (2012) Executive functions: what they are, how they work, and why they evolved. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 13.Stuss DT, Benson DF (1986) The frontal lobes. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 16.Rinskey JR, Hinshaw SP (2011) Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD. Child Neuropsychol 17:368–390Google Scholar
- 22.Depue B, Burgess G, Willcutt E, Bidwell L, Ruzic L, Banich M (2010) Symptom-correlated brain regions in young adults with combined-type ADHD: their organization, variability, and relation to behavioral performance. Psychiatry Res 182:96–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.11.011 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 23.Halperin J, Trampush J, Miller C, Marks D, Newcorn J (2008) Neuropsychological outcome in adolescents/young adults with childhood ADHD: profiles of persisters, remitters, and controls. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49:958–966. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01926.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Pelham WE, Bender ME (1982) Peer relationships in hyperactive children: description and treatment. In: Gadow KD, Bailer I (eds) Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities, vol 1. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp 365–436Google Scholar
- 30.Heiman T (2005) An examination of peer relationships of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Sch Psychol Int 26:330–339Google Scholar
- 36.Crick NR, Dodge KA (1994) A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychol Bull 115:74Google Scholar
- 40.Sibley MH, Evans SW, Serpell ZN (2010) Social cognition and interpersonal impairment in young adolescents with ADHD. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 32:193–202Google Scholar
- 41.McQuade JD, Hoza B (2015) Peer relationships of Children with ADHD. In: Barkley RA (ed) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Guilford Press, New York & London, pp 288–305Google Scholar
- 43.Phillips LH, Tunstall M, Channon S (2007) Exploring the role of working memory in dynamic social cue decoding using dual task methodology. J Nonverb Behav 31:137–152Google Scholar
- 44.Patterson ML, Stockbridge E (1998) Effects of cognitive demand and judgment strategy on person perception accuracy. J Nonverb Behav 22:253–263Google Scholar
- 45.Phillips LH, Channon S, Tunstall M, Hedenstrom A, Lyons K (2008) The role of working memory in decoding emotions. Emo 8:184Google Scholar
- 46.Wegner DM, Bargh JA (1997) Control and automaticity in social life. In: Gilbert DT, Fiske SL, Gardner L (eds) Handbook of social psychology, 4th edn. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 446–498Google Scholar
- 47.Gilbert DT, Pelham BW, Krull DS (1988) On cognitive busyness: when person perceivers meet persons perceived. J Pers Soc Psychol 54:733Google Scholar
- 51.Rosenthal R, Hall JA, DiMatteo MR, Rogers PL, Archer D (1979) Sensitivity to nonverbal communication: the PONS test. Johns Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
- 52.Archer D, Costanzo M (1988) A guide to the interpersonal perception task (IPT) for instructors and researchers. University of California Center for Media, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
- 54.Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA (2001) Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
- 55.Lawrence EJ, Shaw P, Giampietro VP, Surguladze S, Brammer MJ, David AS (2006) The role of ‘shared representations’ in social perception and empathy: an fRMI study. Nero-Image 29:1173–1184Google Scholar
- 56.Wechsler D (2008) Wechsler adult intelligence scale-fourth. The Psychological Corporation, San AntonioGoogle Scholar
- 59.Oberauer K, Su H-M, Wilhelm O, Sander N (2007) Individual differences in working memory capacity and reasoning ability. In: Conway ARA, Jarrold C, Kane MJ, Miyake A, Towse JN (eds) Variation in working memory. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 49–75Google Scholar
- 60.Unsworth N, Spillers GJ (2010) Working memory capacity: attention, memory, or both? A direct test of the dual-component model. J Mem Lang 62:392–406Google Scholar
- 62.Jaeggi SM, Buschkuehl M, Perrig WJ, Meier B (2010) The concurrent validity of the N-back task as a working memory measure. Mem 18:394–412Google Scholar
- 63.Redick TS, Lindsey DR (2013) Complex span and n-back measures of working memory: a meta-analysis. Psychonom Bull Rev 20:1102–1113Google Scholar
- 64.Chacko A, Kofler M, Jarrett M (2014) Improving outcomes for youth with ADHD: a conceptual framework for combined neurocognitive and skill-based treatment approaches. Clin Child Fam Psychol 17:368–384Google Scholar