Influence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders on Academic Performance and School Functions of Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Chao-Yu Liu
  • Wei-Lieh Huang
  • Wei-Chih Kao
  • Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Original Article


Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) are associated with negative school outcomes. The study aimed to examine the impact of ADHD and ODD/CD on various school functions. 395 youths with ADHD (244 with ADHD + ODD/CD and 151 with ADHD only) and 156 controls received semi-structured psychiatric interviews. School functions were assessed and compared between each group with a multiple-level model. The results showed that youths with ADHD had poorer performance across different domains of school functioning. Youths with ADHD + ODD/CD had more behavioral problems but similar academic performance than those with ADHD only. The multiple linear regression models revealed that ADHD impaired academic performance while ODD/CD aggravated behavioral problems. Our findings imply that comorbid ODD/CD may specifically contribute to social difficulties in youths with ADHD. Measures of early detection and intervention for ODD/CD should be conducted to prevent adverse outcomes.


ADHD Comorbidity Oppositional defiant disorder Conduct disorder School function 

Supplementary material

10578_2017_710_MOESM1_ESM.doc (46 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 45 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chao-Yu Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wei-Lieh Huang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wei-Chih Kao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Susan Shur-Fen Gau
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryNational Taiwan University HospitalYun-LinTaiwan, Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryNational Taiwan University Hospital and College of MedicineTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China
  3. 3.Graduate Institute of Clinical MedicineNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Psychology, Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, and Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive MedicineNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China

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