Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 749–761 | Cite as

A Randomized-Controlled Trial of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Seminar Series with Indonesian Parents

  • Agnes Sumargi
  • Kate Sofronoff
  • Alina Morawska
Original Article


There are limited evaluations of an evidence-based parenting program for parents from large developing countries, such as Indonesia. This study aimed to test the efficacy and acceptability of an evidence-based parenting program, the Triple P seminar series, among Indonesian parents. The level of child emotional and behavioral problems was the primary outcome of this study. Participants were 143 parents of children aged 2–12 years in Indonesia that were randomly allocated into the intervention (n = 72) or waitlist control group (n = 71). Participants, investigators, and data collectors were not blinded to the group assignment. A randomized-controlled trial was conducted with 143 parents of children aged 2–12 years in Indonesia. Results showed that parents in the intervention group reported a greater decrease in child behavioral problems (d = 0.45), dysfunctional parenting practices (d = 0.69), parental stress (d = 0.44), and a greater increase in parenting confidence (d = 0.45) in comparison to parents in the waitlist control group at post intervention. The intervention effects were maintained at 6-month follow up for parents in the intervention group. The program was deemed to be culturally appropriate as parents indicated high levels of acceptability and satisfaction with the program content. It is suggested that future studies include families with lower income and employ a more stringent design (e.g., using validated measures, multiple facilitators, and blinding).


Brief parenting program Child emotional and behavioral problems Parenting practices Parental adjustment Indonesian parents 


Conflict of interest

This paper is a part of the first author’s PhD thesis supervised by the second and third author. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is owned by the University of Queensland (UQ). The University through its main technology transfer company UniQuest Pty Limited, has licensed Triple P International Pty Ltd to disseminate the program worldwide. Royalties stemming from this dissemination activity are distributed in accordance with the University’s intellectual property policy and flow to the Parenting and Family Support Centre, School of Psychology, UQ; Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences; and contributory authors. No author has any share or ownership in Triple P International Pty Ltd. Agnes Sumargi was a PhD student in the School of Psychology, UQ, at the time of study; Kate Sofronoff is an academic on staff in the School of Psychology, UQ; and Alina Morawska is an author of various Triple P programs.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agnes Sumargi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kate Sofronoff
    • 1
  • Alina Morawska
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of PsychologyWidya Mandala Catholic UniversitySurabayaIndonesia

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