Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 749–761 | Cite as

A Randomized-Controlled Trial of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Seminar Series with Indonesian Parents

Original Article

Abstract

There are limited evaluations of an evidence-based parenting program for parents from large developing countries, such as Indonesia. This study aimed to test the efficacy and acceptability of an evidence-based parenting program, the Triple P seminar series, among Indonesian parents. The level of child emotional and behavioral problems was the primary outcome of this study. Participants were 143 parents of children aged 2–12 years in Indonesia that were randomly allocated into the intervention (n = 72) or waitlist control group (n = 71). Participants, investigators, and data collectors were not blinded to the group assignment. A randomized-controlled trial was conducted with 143 parents of children aged 2–12 years in Indonesia. Results showed that parents in the intervention group reported a greater decrease in child behavioral problems (d = 0.45), dysfunctional parenting practices (d = 0.69), parental stress (d = 0.44), and a greater increase in parenting confidence (d = 0.45) in comparison to parents in the waitlist control group at post intervention. The intervention effects were maintained at 6-month follow up for parents in the intervention group. The program was deemed to be culturally appropriate as parents indicated high levels of acceptability and satisfaction with the program content. It is suggested that future studies include families with lower income and employ a more stringent design (e.g., using validated measures, multiple facilitators, and blinding).

Keywords

Brief parenting program Child emotional and behavioral problems Parenting practices Parental adjustment Indonesian parents 

References

  1. 1.
    O’Connell ME, Boat T, Warner KE (2009) Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: progress and possibilities. National Academic Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization (2004) Prevention of mental disorders: Effective interventions and policy options. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beauchaine TP, Webster-Stratton C, Reid MJ (2005) Mediators, moderators, and predictors of 1-year outcomes among children treated for early-onset conduct problems: a latent growth curve analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 73:371–388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sanders M, Woolley ML (2005) The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: implications for parent training. Child Care Health Dev 31:65–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moran P, Ghate D, van der Merwe A (2008) What works in parenting support? A review of the international evidence. Department for Education and Skills, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaminski JW, Valle LA, Filene JH, Boyle CL (2008) A meta-analytic review of components associated with parent training program effectiveness. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36:567–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thomas R, Zimmer-Gembeck M (2007) Behavioral outcomes of parent-child interaction therapy and Triple P—Positive Parenting Program: a review and meta-analysis. J Abnorm Child Psychol 35:475–495CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calam R, Sanders M, Miller C, Sadhnani V, Carmont S-A (2008) Can technology and the media help reduce dysfunctional parenting and increase engagement with preventative parenting interventions? Child Maltreat 13:347–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sanders M, Prior J, Ralph A (2009) An evaluation of a brief universal seminar series on positive parenting: a feasibility study. J Child Serv 4:4–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sanders M (2012) Development, evaluation, and multinational dissemination of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 8:345–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nowak C, Heinrichs N (2008) A comprehensive meta-analysis of Triple P-Positive Parenting Program using hierarchical linear modeling: effectiveness and moderating variables. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 11:114–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    de Graaf I, Speetjens P, Smit F, de Wolff M, Tavecchio L (2008) Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on parenting: a meta-analysis. Fam Relat 57:553–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morawska A, Haslam D, Milne D, Sanders M (2011) Evaluation of a brief parenting discussion group for parents of young children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 32:136–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sanders M et al (2008) Every family: a population approach to reducing behavioral and emotional problems in children making the transition to school. J Prim Prev 29:197–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leung C, Sanders M, Leung S, Mak R, Lau J (2003) An outcome evaluation of the implementation of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in Hong Kong. Fam Process 42:531–544CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Matsumoto Y, Sofronoff K, Sanders M (2010) Investigation of the effectiveness and social validity of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program in Japanese society. J Fam Psychol 24:87–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mejia A, Calam R, Sanders M (2012) A review of parenting programs in developing countries: opportunities and challenges for preventing emotional and behavioral difficulties in children. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 15:163–175CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    United Nations Development Programme (2013) Human development report 2013: the rise of the south, human progress in a diverse world. United Nations Development Programme, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (2009) Profil hasil pendataan keluarga tahun 2009 [Profile of family survey in 2009]. Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (2006) Modul Bina Keluarga Balita [Modules of guidance for family with young children]. Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Faraz NJ, Sumarno, Endarwati ML (1996) Evaluasi pelaksanaan program Bina Keluarga Balita Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta [Evaluation of the implementation of Bina Keluarga Balita program in Yogyakarta region], Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta dan Pusat Studi Wanita IKIP Yogyakarta, YogyakartaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marhaeni AAIN, Sriathi AAA, Aswitari LP, Adnyawati NM, Soedjono L, Rastini K (1998) Peranan Gerakan Bina Keluarga Balita (BKB) dalam mempersiapkan anak-anak berkualitas (Studi perbandingan di kelurahan Kuta dan kelurahan Kubu) [The role of Bina Keluarga Balita program in preparing qualified children (A comparison study in Kuta and Kubu district)], Universitas Udayana, DenpasarGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sari N (2010) Hubungan kegiatan Bina Keluarga Balita (BKB) dan tumbuh kembang balita di kelurahan Simpang Tetap Daruh Ichsan kecamatan Dumai Barat kota Dumai tahun 2009 [Relationships between Bina Keluarga Balita (BKB) and development of young children in Simpang Tetap Daruh Ichsan subdistrict, Dumai Barat district, Dumai city in 2009], Universitas Sumatera Utara, MedanGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sumargi A, Sofronoff K, Morawska A (2013) Understanding parenting practices and parents’ views of parenting programs: a survey among Indonesian parents residing in Indonesia and Australia. J Child Fam Stud. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9821-3
  25. 25.
    Sanders M, Markie-Dadds C, Rinaldis M, Firman D, Baig N (2007) Using household survey data to inform policy decisions regarding the delivery of evidence-based parenting interventions. Child Care Health Dev 33:768–783CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sumargi A, Sofronoff K, Morawska A (2014) Evaluation of a brief format of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: a pilot study with Indonesian parents residing in Australia. Behav Change 31:144–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang A-G, Buchner A (2007) G*Power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behav Res Methods 39:175–191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sanders M (1999) Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: towards an empirically validated multilevel parenting and family support strategy for the prevention of behavior and emotional problems in children. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2:71–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Turner K, Markie-Dadds C, Sanders M (2002) Facilitator’s manual for group Triple P. Brisbane. Brisbane, Triple P International Pty. Ltd., BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Morawska A, Sanders M, Haslam D, Filus A, Fletcher R (2014) Child adjustment and parent efficacy scale (CAPES): development and initial validation of a parent report measure. Austr Psychol 49:241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mejia A, Filus A, Calam R, Morawska A, Sanders M (2013) Translation and validation of the CAPES in Spanish: a brief instrument for assessing child maladjustment and parent efficacy (under review)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sanders M, Morawska A, Haslam D, Filus A, Fletcher R (2014) Parenting and Family Adjustment Scale (PAFAS): validation of a brief parent-report measure for use in assessment of parenting skills and family relationships. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 45:255–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Arnold DS, O’Leary SG, Wolff LS, Acker MM (1993) The Parenting Scale: a measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychol Assess 5:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sanders M, Turner K (2005) Facilitators’s manual for selected Triple P. Brisbane. Triple P International Pty. Ltd., BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rubin DB (2008). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schafer JL, Graham JW (2002) Missing data: our view of the state of the art. Psychol Methods 7:147–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Graham JW (2009) Missing data analysis: making it work in the real world. Annu Rev Psychol 60:549–576CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    van Ginkel JR, Kroonenberg PM (2014) Analysis of variance of multiply imputed data. Multivar Behav Res 49:78–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    van Ginkel JR (2014) SPSS syntax for applying rules for combining multivariate estimates in multiple imputation. http://socialsciences.leiden.edu/educationandchildstudies/childandfamilystudies/organisation/staffcfs/van-ginkel.html
  40. 40.
    van Ginkel JR (2008) SPSS syntax for applying rules for combining univariate estimates in multiple imputation. http://socialsciences.leiden.edu/educationandchildstudies/childandfamilystudies/organisation/staffcfs/van-ginkel.html
  41. 41.
    Morris SB (2008) Estimating effect sizes from pretest-posttest-control group designs. Organ Res Methods 11:364–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Becker BJ (1988) Synthesizing standard mean-change measures. Br J Math Stat Psychol 41:247–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lipsey MW, Wilson DB (2001) Practical meta-analysis. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mejia A, Calam R, Sanders M (2014) Examining delivery preferences and cultural relevance of an evidence-based parenting program in a low-resource setting of Central America: approaching parents as consumers. J Child Fam Stud. doi:10.1007/s10826-014-9911-x
  45. 45.
    Yulindrasari H, McGregor K (2011) Contemporary discourses of motherhood and fatherhood in Ayahbunda, a middle-class Indonesian parenting magazine. Marriage Fam Rev 47:605–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Koentjaraningrat (1985) Javanese culture. Oxford University Press, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Morawska A et al (2011) Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program acceptable to parents from culturally diverse backgrounds? J Child Fam Stud 20:614–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Matsumoto Y, Sofronoff K, Sanders M (2007) The efficacy and acceptability of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program with Japanese parents. Behav Change 24:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kumpfer KL, Pinyuchon M, de Melo AT, Whiteside HO (2008) Cultural adaptation process for international dissemination of the Strengthening Families Program. Eval Health Prof 31:226–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Drugli M, Larsson B, Clifford G (2007) Changes in social competence in young children treated because of conduct problems as viewed by multiple informants. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16:370–378CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Webster-Stratton C, Lindsay DW (1999) Social competence and conduct problems in young children: issues in assessment. J Clin Child Psychol 28:25–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schoenwald SK, Hoagwood K (2011) Effectiveness, transportability, and dissemination of interventions: what matters when? Psychiatr Serv 52:1190–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fayyad J, Farah L, Cassir Y, Salamoun M, Karam E (2010) Dissemination of an evidence-based intervention to parents of children with behavioral problems in a developing country. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19:629–636CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Harachi TW, Catalano RF, Hawkins JD (1997) Effective recruitment for parenting programs within ethnic minority communities. Child Adolesc Social Work J 14:23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agnes Sumargi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kate Sofronoff
    • 1
  • Alina Morawska
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of PsychologyWidya Mandala Catholic UniversitySurabayaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations