Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 44, Issue 6, pp 766–776 | Cite as

The Peer Aggressive and Reactive Behavior Questionnaire (Parb-Q): Measurement Invariance Across Italian and Brazilian Children, Gender and Age

  • Juliane Callegaro Borsa
  • Bruno Figueiredo Damásio
  • Denise Ruschel Bandeira
  • Paola Gremigni
Original Article


This study examines measurement invariance, reliability and scores differences of the Peer Aggressive and Reactive Behaviors Questionnaire (PARB-Q) across Italian and Brazilian children, gender and age. Participants were 587 Italian and 727 Brazilian children, aged 7–13 years from 12 elementary schools. The PARB-Q is a brief self-report instrument composed by two scales that assess aggressive behavior and reactions to peer aggression. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses indicated full measurement invariance of the PARB-Q across groups based on country, gender and age, providing support for the unidimensionality of the first scale (direct peer aggression, PA) and a 3-factor model of the second scale (reactive aggression, RA; seeking teacher support, STS; internalizing reaction, IR). Reliability indices were good for all factors. Italian children reported a higher frequency of PA and a lower frequency of IR than the Brazilian children. Boys scored higher than girls on PA and RA, while girls scored higher than boys on STS and IR. Younger children reported a lower frequency of PA and a higher frequency of STS than older children. Results provide support for structure validity and reliability of the PARB-Q in two countries and information on differences related to gender, age and culture in peer relationships in elementary school.


Aggressive behavior Reactions to aggression Children Measurement invariance Cross-cultural comparisons 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juliane Callegaro Borsa
    • 1
  • Bruno Figueiredo Damásio
    • 1
  • Denise Ruschel Bandeira
    • 1
  • Paola Gremigni
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of PsychologyUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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